Final Exam Study Notes

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHL235H1
Professor
Elmar J.Kremer
Semester
Summer

Description
Religion a shared set of beliefs about the ultimate source of being and value (such as goodness), with consequent social practices and moral principles. Judaism, Christianity and Islam are considered as paradigm cases of religion. Most non-theistic religious stances do not include a unified belief about the ultimate origin of being and ultimate origin of value. Materialism is an example of a non-theistic religion on the ultimate source of being, but not on the ultimate source of value. Humanism and Buddhism are examples of non-theistic religion on the ultimate source of value, but not about the ultimate source of being. Since theism identifies the ultimate origin of being with the ultimate origin of value, it implies that the world is good. Logical Positivism an approach that puts a lot of emphasis on natural science. It utilizes natural science to test a concept. Verification principle created by a group of philosophers known as the Vienna Circle, it is the principle that states a statement has factual meaning if it can be verified on the basis of sense experience. Strong verificationism a sentence has factual meaning if and only if it is conclusively verifiable on the basis of sense experience. Problems with strong verificationism: Some factually meaningful statements cannot be conclusively verified. E.g. All gold melts at T. Some factually meaningful statements cannot be conclusively falsified. E.g. My cat Tibbles is mortal. Some factually meaningful statements cannot be conclusively verified or falsified. E.g. All cats are mortal. Weak verificationism a sentence has factual meaning if and only if it is verified in some way. Problems with weak verificationism: Needs to provide some evidence if not conclusive evidence in order to be verified. www.notesolution.com Problematic as minor evidences of factual statements can verify concepts that are not accepted by verificationists and also not measured on sense experience. Kalaam Cosmological Argument: 1) The world has a beginning. 2) If something has a beginning, it has a cause distinct from itself. Therefore, 3) The world has a cause distinct from itself. Sadiaa ben Joseph argument for premise 1): If the world did not have a beginning, then an infinite number of days has been traversed up to the present day. An infinite number of days cannot be traversed. Therefore, The world has a beginning St. Thomas Aquinas argument against Ben Joseph (does not disprove argument but does provide a sense of skepticism): Passage is always from term to term. Whatever by-gone day we choose, from it to the present day there is a finite number of days which can be traversed. Infinite sets argument for Kalaam Cosmological argument: Adding a new member to an infinite set does not make it any larger. Therefore, If the past history of the world is an infinity large set of events, then the world is not getting older. But it seems clear that the world is getting older. Argument by Davies on cause of the existence of the world is an intelligent being: 1) The cause of existence of the world is not a material object (part of the universe). 2) If a cuase is not a material thing, then it is an intelligent, personal agent. Therefore, www.notesolution.com
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