September 17 Plato's Republic
NB= especially important
CRAFT IS VIRTUE IS KNOW-HOW
1. Problems of ends- afterlife is uncertain, how do we gain knowledge of a proper end
2. knowledge of good
Socrates on moral psychology (NB: v. Plato)
virtue is a form of know-how knowledge
knowledge brings virtue
therefore, it is impossible to know the right thing and not do it
thus, for Socrates no akrasia (weakness of the will)- to know the right thing and wanting to do it:
N - 2ND
Y - 1ST
He then concludes there is Psychological conflict, Akrasia.
*Knowledgeable Aristocratic Definition
3. Harm- Socrates said to never harm
Enter Thrasymachus of Chaleedon, a Sophist- argue for hiers (lawyers) character
dialogue between Socrates and Thrasymachus who gets humiliated.
*Political Realist Definition
- person who believes power is everything
- justice is the advantage of the strong
5 false moves:
1. Error (P.339c)- are they ever mistaken of their advantage? yes, but can be right
2. Belief (340b-d)- they are acting on what they believe their advantage to be
3. Craft (341a)- is ruling a craft? yes, a ruler has strength and authority and also attends to something
4. Advanage (343d [NB: a variation of 2 above]- valuable things (e.g. castles, army) to help give you
5. Knowledge (350b) [NB: a variation of 3 above]- is there knowledge required for the power?
Bad Socratic arguments:
333e Boxer/Thief- Boxer: knows how to defend one self and offend, Thief: Socrates wants
352a soul-city analogy (soul-psyche-living part of person) fair legal code for the society.
369a E-Z reader suggestion- helps understanding
(353e) Psychological Definition
excellence virtue-> end (purpose, telos)
Great, But has this solved anything?
What kind of good is this?
internal instrumental good (knowleddge) = lead to more good things inside
external instrument good (medicine, excercise) = lead to more good things outside