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POL208Y1 Study Guide - Nuclear Warfare, Operation Opera, Security Dilemma

Political Science
Course Code
John Haines

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POL208 Midterm December 7th, 2010 2:00-4:00PM
- Define 5/6 International Relations Terms worth 10 marks each
- Respond to 1/2 Essay Questions worth 50 marks
- Things to keep in mind:
o Keep answers relevant, get to the point
o Definitions should be at least a page in length
o Essay should be several pages in length
o Pay attention to analytical framework
o Explain events with theories that we learned in class
o Draw connections between things. Supposed to try to connect to
different paradigms in your analysis.
o Theories: make assumptions about state actors, impose a rational model
of thinking, improve knowledge of world politics, improve knowledge of
o Definitions should include:
Definition of the concept
Example should be transnational
Relevance to International Relations
Important Definitions:
Globalization: fundamental shift or transformation in the scale of human social
organization that links distant communities together and expands the power
relations at different levels across regions and continents. Making this possible are
technological advancements and economic policies.
Realism: this is a theoretical framework for understanding international relations.
This theory focuses on the importance of security and power in the way that the
state engages in global politics. The idea of security comes from the idea that in
order to achieve this state, the country must ensure that it can deal with threats
from other states. There are two ways of approaching realism and the security of the
state: power maximizing (this is a offensive method) or security seeking (defensive
method). Power maximising involves being secure when the state is the biggest and
most powerful state. Security seeking involves meeting the status quo. The cold war
is probably the best example to draw upon to demonstrate realist thinking in
practice. This involved an arms war between the U.S and the Soviet Union, as both
states were striving to secure themselves by being as powerful/ more powerful than
the other. This was the only way to ensure their survival.
Liberalism: The fundamental role of liberalism is to try and transform the
international system to overcome constraints. Liberalism is a philosophy of freedom
(from constraints, fear). The state is the servant of freedom. The government is the
safest precaution against arbitrary intrusion. There are many forms of liberal states:
laissez-faire capitalism, socialist governments, and constitutional monarchy.
Liberalism in world politics often results in contradictions. Justice in the world is
relative. Liberal values can be a cause for war (ie: peace keeping missions)

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Outline for the Fall Semester:
1. Introduction:
Three events that shaped history:
a) Hiroshima
- Ended WWII
- ãòJapanese)
- òó
- Truman administration decision making
- Bureaucratic reasons, scientists were not sure of consequences, US did not want
to show potential failure
b) Fall of the Berlin Wall
- Nobody predicted the end of the cold war would happen like this
- Tangible Factors:
o Gorbachev (1975): wanted to improve and reform Soviet Union,
launched domestic reform and international negotiations, decrease
soviet budget to improve relations
o òóò-interventionistó
influx of E. Euro immigrants to W. Euro
o Hundreds of immigrants passed through the border in 3 hours
- Non-Tangible:
o West German media flowed into Eastern Germany
o There was a flow of money between the two sides
c) 9/11
- Failure of intelligence and prestige of U.S., failure of global intelligence
- There were signs, but there was a general lack of public and political acceptance
- This was because U.S. has military presence in Saudi Arabia
- Al-Qaeda is an informal network
- Continental U.S. has never been attacked before
- Domestic security has changed (department of homeland security)
- Globalization, mass communication, and travel made 9/11 possible
Understanding Why These Events Occurred:
a) Individual Leaders: personality, beliefs, generation, perception
b) Role of Decision Makers: position and represented institutions, status, influence
c) Structure of Government: what is the system
d) Characteristics of Society: economic, resources, culture
e) Level of Classic International Relations: historical relations emerging trends
f) The World System: bipolar to unipolar to multipolar
2. Making Sense of Globalization:
Basic Definition: widening and deepening of interconnection between people and
societies around the world
- Fundamental shift or transformation in the scale of human social organization that
links distant communities together and expands the power relations at different
levels across regions and continents. Making this possible are technological
advancements and economic policies (see important definitions).

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Fundamental Aspects:
a) Traveling:
a. Compression of time
b. More exchanges
c. Opening of different cultures and languages
d. Transmission of disease
e. Terrorism on global scale
f. Massive immigration
b) Media
a. Television immediate, non-stop, events receive immediate challenge
b. Mobile Phone send and receive information, impacts business
c. Internet news, individual participation, hard to control flow of
c) Financial Activities
a. Money transfers
b. Assets spread around the world
c. Interconnectedness
d. Global branches rids local markets
The Impact on Classic Interstate Relationships:
Minimalist Position: International politics remains the same in its essence. The states
are the main actors who can use military force, has power. Consider globalization
not truly global.
Maximalist Position: Globalization is fundamentally changing the nature of the state
itself. Issues are being dealt with at the level of global governance. State is losing
capacity to regulate.
Consequences of Globalization:
1. State: people can go beyond borders, more difficult to control affairs within
borders, state sovereignty has been modified, state autonomy modified,
domestic policy is driving foreign policy, increased complexities, often
globalization triggers conflict
2. International Institutions: efficiency problems, inadequate to tackle
problems, legitimacy (P5 and veto power), consensus difficulties, capitalism
3. Individual: lifting people from poverty, opposition to globalization, lost
identity, triumph of English, loss of culture, western dominations (idiotic)
3. Realism:
- Started in the failure of the League of Nations òs{urïó
(from an academic perspective)
- Power you cannot have an organization whose first objective is to ensure
peace but has no power to impose peace
- Weaknesses:
o Strategic Contradiction: movement to disarm, but how can you enforce/
punish if you do not have the means to do so, in order to promote peace,
you need to have the capacity to wage war
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