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Political Science
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John Haines

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Tutorial Readings POL208Y1
How Liberalism Creates Democratic Peace John Owen
His theory augments existing explanations of the democratic peace in
structural (focusing on liberal institutions like veto points) and normative
(focusing on liberal ideologies like domestic norms of compromise projected
into foreign affairs) factors. Countries do not fight with each other if they
perceive the other to be a democracy and this perception is important. They
use Liberal ideology and liberal institutions to bring about democratic peace.
Liberal elites broadcast the idea against war with another through free
speech and illiberal elites back down out of fear of electoral upheaval. This is
a self-regulatory mechanism. He uses four examples. The first is the Franco-
American Quasi War (1796-98), Anglo-American relations during the Civil
War (1861-63), Anglo-American dispute over Venezuela (1895-96). He uses the
Anglo-American War of 1812 as a counterexample. He rebuttals structural
realism that states domestic political structures and ideas can fundamentally
shape foreign policy. He argues that although this may be true, liberalism is
needed to push democracies to be peaceful with each other.
The Retreat of the State Susan Strange
Strange states that the international political economy is transformed by
globalization, in particular technological changes and the liberalization of
international trade, production and finance. All of these changes have
challenged the position of states in the international arena, which is that
they are the primary players. There are paradoxes to this situation, which are
that states still intervene in citizens lives (does not necessarily mean more
power), state power is decreasing yet groups seeking their own state is
increasing and the contradiction of east Asian states (Japan, Korea, Taiwan)
which are energetic in sponsoring national economic growth. Even these East
Asian countries have moved towards economic policies pursued by western
states such as non-discriminatory policies on trade and investment to allow
foreign competition for the benefit of consumers.
The State and Globalization Saskia Sassen
The author goes against popular belief that the states role in international
relations has declined because of globalization and suggests that the state is
assuming an important new role involving the passage of legislation,
administrative regulation and court decisions. These new roles of the state
are aimed to treat foreign-based and domestic business firms and banks
equally. Sassen notes that in the past, domestically owned firms enjoyed
strong advantages over foreign firms and now the new stance aims to
denationalize the state. They are able to do this through state-sponsored
laws, regulations and court decisions that reduce the different treatment of
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