Exam Terms- POLA83.docx

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Political Science

ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) - Signed by the founding fathers of the ASEAN: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Their aim is to accelerate the economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region. To promote regional peace and and to promote south Asian studies. The ASEAN wants to main close and beneficial cooperation with existing regional organizations. Bretton Woods System - A monetary system that was created after WW2, established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the world’s major industrial states. - It create the IMF and the World Bank (used to known as IBRD) - To cause Economic stability and international currency stabilization - Obligated to adopt a monetary policy to each country and maintain its currencies with in a fixed value, in terms of gold. Hence this caused trade to happen and that have boosted trade balances value upwards. Cold War  The period of conflict, tension and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies from the mid-1940s until the early 1990s  Was never a direct military engagement between the US and the Soviet Union, but there was half a century of military buildup as well as political battles for support around the world, including significant involvement of allied and satellite nations in proxy wars  The ideological clash between communism and capitalism began in 1917 following the Russian Revolution, when the USSR emerged as the first major communist power. This was the first event which made Russian-American relations a matter of major, long-term concern to the leaders in each country  It has increased trade and the action of globalization in the USA's side because the USA adopted the capitalism concept and that is what globalization is all about. But it also increased modernization in each side. Common Agriculture Policy (CAP) - is a system of the European Union agricultural subsidies and programmes. It represented 47% of the EU’s budget. It combines a direct subsidy payment for crops and land which may be cultivated with price support mechanisms including guaranteed minimum prices , import tarrifs and quotas on certain goods from outside the EU. Cosmopolitanism - is the ideology that all human ethnic groups belong to a single community based on a shared morality. Cosmopolitanism may entail some sort of world government or it may simply refer to more inclusive moral, economic, and/or political relationships between nations or individuals of different nations. Dumping - Dispose of garbage. Or put or abandon in order to escape. Europeanization - The emergence and the development at the European level of distinct structures of governance. It is a domestic change caused by European integration, it is a colonial expansion known as we are the greatest. It is becoming more European like, having a top-down approach towards everything . Europeanization is a continuing process but it will lead to a full European government , which all nations will begin to follow. FDI (Foreign Direct Investment)  defined as "investment made to acquire lasting interest in enterprises operating outside of the economy of the investor.  The FDI relationship consists of a parent enterprise and a foreign affiliate which together form a Multinational corporation (MNC)  ex. the foreign investment in Dubai, by many MNC's, example will be city group, Apple. And in muscat, the shangri La Group. And banking regions, like the HSBC, CICIC bank, etc.  this have increased investment and as well as growth of economies Francis Fukuyama  an american political economist, philosopher and author. Born in 1952.  Fukuyama is an important figure in the rise of Neoconservatism, which emphasizes foreign policy as the paramount responsibility of government, seeing the American role of world's sole superpower as indispensable to establishing and maintaining global order.  September 20, 2001 letter to President George W. Bush after the September 11, 2001 attacks that suggested the U.S. 'capture or kill Osama bin Laden, and to destroy his network of associates', and 'provide full military and financial support to the Iraqi opposition' for the purpose of removing Saddam Hussein from power 'even if evidence does not link Iraq directly to the attack.' Beginning in 2002 however, he has distanced himself from the neoconservative agenda under the Bush Administration, citing its overly militaristic basis and embrace of unilateral armed intervention, particularly in the Middle East. By late 2003, Fukuyama had voiced his growing opposition to the Iraq War[3] and called for Donald Rumsfeld's resignation as Secretary of Defense.[4] He said that he would vote against Bush in the 2004 election,[5] and said Bush had made three major mistakes:  The threat of radical Islam to the US had been overestimated.  The Bush administration hadn't foreseen the fierce negative reaction to its benevolent hegemony. From the very beginning it had shown a negative attitude towards the United Nations and other international organizations and hadn't seen that this would increase anti-Americanism in other countries.  The Bush administration had misjudged what was needed to bring peace in Iraq and had been overly optimistic about the success with which social engineering of western values could be applied to Iraq and the Middle East in general. Global Warming - A gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth's atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants. This is the reason why in some places it may not snow as much and many animals and plant species are beginning to die Great Depression - the decade preceding world war 2 the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929( known as black Tuesday) and the period during the 1930s when there was a worldwide economic depression and mass unemployment. - KEY example of how the world’s economy can decline Humanitarian Intervention - is a state's use of "military force against another state when the chief publicly declared aim of that military action is ending human-rights violations being perpetrated by the state against which it is directed." [1] - There is no one standard or legal definition of humanitarian intervention; the field of analysis (such as law, ethics, or politics) often influences the definition that is chosen. Differences in definition include variations in whether humanitarian interventions is limited to instances where there is an absence of consent from the host state; whether humanitarian intervention is limited to punishment actions; - IGO ( Intergovernmental Organization) - such as the U.N., the European Union, the Council of Europe, or the World Trade Organization, with sovereign states or other IGOs as members. Their scope and aims are most usually in the public interest but may also have been created with a specific purpose - International Organizations exist with diverse aims, including but not limited to increase international relations, promote education, health care, economic development, environmental protection, human rights, humanitarian efforts, inter- cultural approach and conflict resolution - history:-International organizations developed mainly from the need of nations and governments to have a neutral forum where to debate and consider matters of importance to more than one particular nation. However, some IOs also developed from the need of an either executive or enforcement body which could carry on multinational interests in a unified form. - ILO ( International Labour Organization) - It is one of the oldest components of the UN system of specialized agencies and has been involved over the years appraising and seeking to improve and regulate conditions for sea farers. IMF (International Monetary Fund) - 188 countries  is an International organization that is been based upon the idea of monetary policy, that oversees the global financial system by following the macroeconomic policies of its member countries, in particular those with an impact on exchange rates and the balance of payments  The International Monetary Fund was formally created in July 1944 during the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference. The representatives of 45 governments met in the Mount Washington Hotel in the area of Bretton Woods  Canada is a member of the IMF. Using the special data desimentaion system (SDDS)  working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty------> globalization Immanuel Wallerstein - US sociologist, historical social scientist, and world-systems analyst. His bimonthly commentaries on world affairs are syndicated. - Wallerstein began as an expert of post-colonial African affairs, which he selected as the focus of his studies after an international youth conference in 1951. His publications were almost exclusively devoted to this until the early 1970s, when he began to distinguish himself as a historian and theorist of the global capitalist economy on a macroscopic level. - His early criticism of global capitalism and championship of "anti-systemic movements" have recently made him a éminence grise with the anti- globalization movement within and outside of the academic community, along with Noam Chomsky and Pierre Bourdieu. International Human Rights - Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled. There is a universal declaration of human rights which every human is entitled to what rights are listed they are protected. John Maynard Keynes - British economist whose ideas have profoundly affected the theory and practice of modern macroeconomics , as well as the economic policies of governments - Played a decisive role in the negotiations that were to shape the post – war international economic order. In 1944, he led the British delegation to the Bretton woods conference in the United States. At the conference, he played a significant part in the planning of the World Bank and the IMF. Just War Tradition - War traditions that soliders did at the war. LDCs (Least Developed Countries) - Name given to a country , according to the UN , exhibits the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest Human Development Index, ratings of all countries in the world. - It has to meet three criteria’s : low income, human resource, economic vulnerability Maastricht Treaty  The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty on European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, the Netherlands after final negotiations on December 9, 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1,1993 during the Delors Commission. It led to the creation of the European Union and w
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