First Exam study notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Ryan Hurl

First Refounding: Promoted democracy by endorsing and nurturing those political institutions and constitutional principles thought to be most democratic in character (ie. Free speech, legislative supremacy, and powerful defense of states rights) Connected to two new forms of political communication o 1. A popular press o 2. Political parties As political struggles intensified, number of newspapers expanded dramatically Republicans vs. Federalists Edition act of 1798 pushed through by Federalists (crime to make false accusations against president, Congress, or the government) o Claimed they were not restricting free but suppressing malicious opinions Republican victory in 1800 election strengthened democratic character of the Constitution Revolution of 1800 was to strengthen decentralizing and more democratic instructions of the Constitution (states and house of rep.) Presidency became more accountable to public opinion and national government more beholden to the states and localities Second Refounding: Jackson was president in the Jeffersonian tradition (strengthening democratic tradition that the constitution has sought to tame) Bolder assault on principles and institutions o democracy replacing republicanism Demands for rights would have to come to terms with a highly mobilized competitive and locally oriented democracy Political parties are the schools of political science Jackson mobilized the powers of the government for what was essentially a dismantling operation Decentralist, patronage-based democracy became dominant Whigs set the precedent for how an opposition party ought to behave in a party system o Maintained and expressed important political differences o Believed in a much stronger federal government, federally controlled national banking system, federal funding of roads, canals and other forms of internal improvements o Sought to strengthen congress and contain the executive o Did not question legitimacy of the other party Nullification doctrine: A state could declare any federal law it thought to be unconstitutional inapplicable within its borders
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