POL320 Midterm/Semester 1 Key Points

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Political Science
Simone Chambers

POL320 – Midterm – Key Points | Study Notes Enlightenment vs. Romanticism Rousseau vs. Rousseau – Authenticity vs. Legitimacy Kant & Herder – Head & Heart Burke & Wollstonecraft – Tradition & Emancipation Enlightenment Themes (3P2R) Enlightenment Values (LEAFA) Reason Liberty Religion Equality Public Sphere Fraternity Progress Autonomy Politics Authenticity Rousseau: Central Concepts  Equality/inequality  Pity/self-preservation/egocentrism o amour se soi | amour-propre  Reason/reflection  Sentiment/passion  Nature/convention  Authenticity 2 Rousseaus: 1. Authenticity has been threatened, perhaps destroyed, by progress. (Romantic ~ Discourse) 2. Reason tells us that we’re fundamentally free & that consent is the only basis of legitimate political rule. (Enlightenment ~ Social Contract) Kant  Morality doesn’t make sense unless universal  Humans aren’t things, can’t be used as such – each has immeasurable worth (reason, which all possess, tell us this) – dignity & respect  For all virtues: if bad character/intentions/will, could be used for bad things  Create a morality to which everybody has equal access; universal law* [of nature = irregularity]  Immorality = irrational, morality = rational  Only humans have purpose; choose ends & give values to those ends; our choices create value  Universalization; humans have immeasurable worth, dignity worthy of respect  Morality sets limits, doesn’t give direction – all perfect duties are don’ts – just create side constraints  Kant’s characterization of what it means to be human: dignity, respect & autonomy  Appraisal-respect vs. Recognition-respect  Dualist view: reason & appetite; most important faculty of human beings is their rational faculty; distinct, in opposition to appetites, desires, inclinations  Radical autonomy = the notion of a free will 1. Good will & duty a. Good will = good intentions b. Good intentions, virtues & results c. Good intention = acting from duty d. Acting from duty vs. acting in conformity with duty: misanthrope e. Duty – law – universal law 2. Categorical Imperative st Hypothetical vs. categorical 1 formulation: act only in accordance with the maxim through which you can at the same time will that it becomes universal law. 2 : act as if the max
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