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Study Guide

PSY100H1- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 80 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Dan Dolderman
Study Guide
Midterm

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UTSG
PSY100H1
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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2014119 星期日
PSY Ch.7-14
Momery
-Know terminology
The Atkinson- Shriffrin Model
-three memory stores (retain information in memory without using in any specific
purposes)
-Control process: shift information from one memory store to another
Attention: Select which information will be passed on to STM
Encoding: the process of storing information in LTM (信息的最初加工,从而导致记忆
的表征)
Retrieval: bring information from LTM back to STM (存储信息在随后某一时间的恢复)
Sensory Memory: a memory store that accurately holds perceptual information for a
brief amount of time (每一种感觉记忆都会讲感觉刺激的物理特征的精确表征保持几秒
钟或更短的时间)
-Iconic Memory: the visual form of sensory memory (半秒钟)
-Echoic Memory: the auditory from of sensory memory 󺗜5-10 󺗝
Short term Memory (STM): a memory store with limited capacity and duration.(<1 min)
-The magic number 7 ± 2 : (当记忆的其他资源被分离出去的时候,对于7个项目的记
忆广度STM的纯粹贡献只有24)
-Chunking (组块): organize smaller units of information into larger, more meaningful
units. 󺗜重新组织项目的过程,基于相似性或其他组织原则进行组织,或者基于存储
在长时记忆的信息将它们组成一些更大的模块󺗝
-Serial Position Effect: people will recall the first few items from a list and the last few
items, but only an item or two from the middle
-proactive interference: a process in which the first information learned occupies
memory, leaving fewer resources left to remember the newer information
-retroactive interference: the most recently learned information overshadows some
older memories that have not yet made it into long-term memory
STM deficits can occur after damage to the lower portions of the temporal and parietal
lobes, as well as to lateral areas of the frontal lobes.In contrast, damage to the
hippocampus will prevent the transfer of memories from STM to LTM. These patients will
!1
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2014119 星期日
have relatively preserved memories of their pst, but will be unable to add to them with
new information from short-term memory.
Long Term Memory (LTM): holds information for extended periods of time, if not
permanently . (是从感觉记忆和短时记忆中获得的所有体验󺖯事件󺖯信息󺖯情感󺖯技
能󺖯单词󺖯范畴󺖯规则和判断的仓库󺖰)
Rehersal: or repeating information until you don't need to remember it anymore
Working Memory, a model of short term remembering that includes combination of
memory components that can temporarily store small amounts of information for a
short period of time. (是你用于完成诸如推理和语言理解等任务的记忆资源󺖰)
The phonological loop: a storage component of working memory that relies on
rehearsal and that stores information as sounds, or an auditory code.(这一资源保持和
处理基于言语的信息,语音环路和短时记忆大部分是重叠的)
The visuospatial sketchpad: is a storage component of working memory that
maintains visual images and spatial layouts in a visuospatial code. (这一资源对视觉和
空间信息执行着像语音环路一类的功能)
The episodic buffer: a storage component of working memory that consigns the
images and sounds from other two components into coherent, story-like episodes.
The central executive: the control centre of working memory; it coordinates attention
and the exchange of information among the three storage components.
declarative memories (explicit memories): memories that we are consciously aware of
and that can ve verbalized, including facts about the world and one’s own personal
experiences.
episodic memories (事件记忆): declarative memories for personal experiences that
seem to be organized around episodes and are recalled from a first-person
perspective.
semantic memories(语义记忆): declarative memories that include facts about the
world
nondecalarative memories (implicit memories): include actions or behaviors that you
can remover and perform without awareness.
procedural memories: are patterns of muscle movements such as how to walk, play
piano, or drive a car.
Long-term potentiation (LTP): demonstrates that there is an enduring increase in
connectivity and transmission of neural signals between nerve cells that fire together
!2
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