have relatively preserved memories of their pst, but will be unable to add to them with
new information from short-term memory.
•Long Term Memory (LTM): holds information for extended periods of time, if not
permanently . (是从感觉记忆和短时记忆中获得的所有体验事件信息情感技
•Rehersal: or repeating information until you don't need to remember it anymore
•Working Memory, a model of short term remembering that includes combination of
memory components that can temporarily store small amounts of information for a
short period of time. (是你用于完成诸如推理和语言理解等任务的记忆资源)
•The phonological loop: a storage component of working memory that relies on
rehearsal and that stores information as sounds, or an auditory code.(这一资源保持和
•The visuospatial sketchpad: is a storage component of working memory that
maintains visual images and spatial layouts in a visuospatial code. (这一资源对视觉和
•The episodic buffer: a storage component of working memory that consigns the
images and sounds from other two components into coherent, story-like episodes.
•The central executive: the control centre of working memory; it coordinates attention
and the exchange of information among the three storage components.
•declarative memories (explicit memories): memories that we are consciously aware of
and that can ve verbalized, including facts about the world and one’s own personal
•episodic memories (事件记忆): declarative memories for personal experiences that
seem to be organized around episodes and are recalled from a ﬁrst-person
•semantic memories(语义记忆): declarative memories that include facts about the
•nondecalarative memories (implicit memories): include actions or behaviors that you
can remover and perform without awareness.
•procedural memories: are patterns of muscle movements such as how to walk, play
piano, or drive a car.
•Long-term potentiation (LTP): demonstrates that there is an enduring increase in
connectivity and transmission of neural signals between nerve cells that ﬁre together