summary from textbook
Chapter One – The Evolution of Society
oContributions of Wundt and Hall
-Established the first formal laboratory for research in
-Declared that the new psychology should be a science
modeled after fields such as physics and chemistry.
-According to him, psychology’s primary focus was
consciousness – the awareness of immediate experience.
-Psychology became the scientific study of conscious
-Demanded that the methods be as scientific as those of
chemists and physicists.
G. Stanley Hall
-Estalbished America’s first research laboratory in
-Establisehd the American Psychological Association (APA).
oStructuralism versus Functionalism
-Structuralism: psychology is to analyze consciousness into
its basic elements and investigate how these elements are
-Structuralists wanted to identify and examine the
fundamental components of conscious experience, such as
sensations, feelings, and images.
-Introspection: careful, systematic self-observation of one’s
own conscious experience.
-Functionalism: psychology should investigate the function
of purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure.
-William James – impressed with Charles Darwin’s natural
selection, heritable characteristics that provide a survival or
reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative
characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations
and thus come to be “selected” over time.
-The typical characteristics of a species must serve some
-James argued that consciousness consists of a continuous
flow of thoughts – stream of consciousness.
-Functionalists – how people adapt their behavior to the
demands of the real world around them.
oWatson – behaviorism
-Early 1900s, John B. Watson
-Behaviorism: theoretical orientation based on the premise
that scientific psychology should study only observable
-Power of the scientific method rested on the idea of
-Behavior – any overt (observable) response or activity by an
-Watson – each is made not born. Down-played the
importance of heredity, maintaining that behavior is governed
primarily by environment.