summary of disorders and their treatments -chap 13-14

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12 Dec 2010
School
Department
Course
DisorderSymptoms CausesTreatment
ANXIETY DISORDER BCT is the best
PhobiaFear specific object/situation C- excessive focus on perceived threat
S - learned, observed
B - child w inhibit temperament 
anxiety dis. as an adult, great activation
of amygdala
OCD- operant conditioning, damaged
basal ganglia (suppress impulse),
streptococcal infection, B and CB
factors interaction
Agoraphia (learned association)
Panic (B, abnormalities in CNS)
B- Systematic desensitization
C- rationalize
Drug- tranquilizer, SSRI (Prozac)
General Anxiety Dis.Diffuse, no specific focus
Panic Dis.Sudden attack of terror
Agoraphobia – fear of place where
escape is difficult
Medication- Imipramine
Aporaphia – has to be unlearned
through CBT
Obsessive-compulsive Intrusive thought (recurrent,
unwanted)
compulsive action (need to repeat the
act)
Tic-relate: clomipramine, SSRIs
Non-tic relate (high oxytocin)
CBT- exposure, response prevention
MOOD DISORDER
Depressive
Major depression
Depressed/ Lost of interest
Appetite/ weight change
Loss of sleep, energy, concentration
Feeling of self-approach/ guilt
Frequent thought of death, suicide
B – Genetic, Involve N-Er, Serotonin,
Left PFC
Biological Rymths- REM Sleep, SAD
S – Stress (Loss, Negative Events),
Interpersonal Relationship
C – Cognitive Triad (Negative Thought
About Self, Situation, Future), Learned
Helpless Model (Peop. feel powerless)
Drug- iproniazid, tricyclic
(imipramine), SSRI (Prozac),
bupropion
CBT – encourage adaptive thoughts
Phototherapy for SAD
Aerobic exercises
Electroconvulsive (TMS)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation
(TMS)
DysthymiaMild/moderate depression
Precede MDD
More like a continuum of depression
Bipolar Disorder
Depression + mania
Bipolar I =major dep.+ mania
Bipolar II = major dep.+ hypomania
Cyclothymia = mild dep. + hypomania
Biological – multiple genes
(hypomania = less extreme; have
heighten creativity/ productivity)
Lithium (better with mania)
+ antidepressants (SSRIs)
SCHIZOPHRENIA
Psychotic dis.
Alteration in thoughts/
perception/ consciousness
Subtype
Paranoid
Hallucination
Disorganized
Catatonic
Undifferentiated
Disorganized and inappropriate
behavior
(+) symptoms
Delusion – false personal belief
Hallucination – perception w no clear
external cause
Loosening of association –
meaningless/ disorganized thought
(-) symptoms
Don’t express emotion
Develop over a lifetime, symptoms in
childhoods and adolescence
Brain dis. - enlarged ventricles
reduced brain tissue, abnormalities
of neurotransmitters (dopamine), glial
cell
B –multiple genes, only a
predisposition
S – Disturbed family, Schizovirus,
prenatal environment (trauma/
Chlorpromazine, haloperidol(+)
symptoms, cause tardive dyskinesia
Clozapine both (-) and (+),
serious side effects
Recent: risperidol, olanzapine
Psychosocial therapy + drug most
effective
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