PSY100H1 Study Guide - Psychological Science, Behaviorism, Neurochemistry

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14 Jan 2011
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Key Terms
psychological science The study of mind, brain, and behaviour.
evolutionary theory In psychological science, a theory that emphasizes the
inherited, adaptive value of behaviour and mental activity throughout the entire history
of a species
natural selection Darwin!s theory that those who inherit characteristics that help
them adapt to their particular environmet have a selective advantage over those who do
not.
adaptations In evolutionary theory, the physical characteristics, skills, or abilities that
increase the chances of reproduction of survival and are therefore likely tobe passed
along the future generations.
culture The beliefs, values, rules, and customs that exist within a group of people
who share a common language and environment and that are transmitted through
learning from one generation to the next.
nature-nurture debate The arguments concerning whether psychological
characteristics are biologically innate or acquired through education, experience, and
culture.
mind-body problem A fundamental psychological issue that considers whether mind
and body are separate and distinct or whether the mind is simply the subjective
experience of the physical brain.
dualism The philosophical idea that the mind exists separately from the physical
body.
introspection A systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that
requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts.
structuralism An approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious
experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components or elements.
stream of consciousness A phrase coined by William James to describe one!s
continuous series of ever-changing thoughts.
functionalism An approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose, or
function, of mind and behaviour.
Gestalt theory A theory based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is
different from simply the sum of its constituent elements.
PSY100 Chapter 1 Introduction to Psychological Science
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