• psychological science The study of mind, brain, and behaviour.
• evolutionary theory In psychological science, a theory that emphasizes the
inherited, adaptive value of behaviour and mental activity throughout the entire history
of a species
• natural selection Darwin!s theory that those who inherit characteristics that help
them adapt to their particular environmet have a selective advantage over those who do
• adaptations In evolutionary theory, the physical characteristics, skills, or abilities that
increase the chances of reproduction of survival and are therefore likely tobe passed
along the future generations.
• culture The beliefs, values, rules, and customs that exist within a group of people
who share a common language and environment and that are transmitted through
learning from one generation to the next.
• nature-nurture debate The arguments concerning whether psychological
characteristics are biologically innate or acquired through education, experience, and
• mind-body problem A fundamental psychological issue that considers whether mind
and body are separate and distinct or whether the mind is simply the subjective
experience of the physical brain.
• dualism The philosophical idea that the mind exists separately from the physical
• introspection A systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that
requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts.
• structuralism An approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious
experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components or elements.
• stream of consciousness A phrase coined by William James to describe one!s
continuous series of ever-changing thoughts.
• functionalism An approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose, or
function, of mind and behaviour.
• Gestalt theory A theory based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is
different from simply the sum of its constituent elements.
PSY100 Chapter 1 Introduction to Psychological Science