definitions for the second term test and second half of exam

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5 Feb 2011

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Chapter 7 Memory
Removed HMs hippocampus to stop seizures and resulted in loss of long term memory processing
Thinking is fine; can hold a normal conversation as long as theres no distractions; learns new things
Task: trace star while watching hand in a mirror 10x each of the 3 days improved
Therefore: can learn new motor skills
Memory: the capacity of the nervous system to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge, allowing living
organisms to benefit from experience
Modal memory model: 3 stage memory system that involves sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term
Remember millions of pieces of information, from trivial to vital; entire sense of self is that which we know
from our memories, from our recollection of personal experiences
Memories are often incomplete, biased, and distorted
Many sides to every story because each person stores and retrieves memory for the event in distinctive ways
Memory is a story that can be subtly altered through telling and retellings
Late 1960s, most psychologists viewed memory as a form of information processing (computer)
o 3 stage memory system: sensory memory, short term, long term <- modal memory model
Psychologists now believe that there are multiple memory systems
Sensory memory: memory for sensory information that is stored briefly in its original sensory form
Visual sensory memory is also called iconic memory, auditory sensory memory is also called echoic memory
George Sperling: 3 rows of letters displayed for 1/20 of a s, asked to recall one row after awhile; worse for longer
delay periods
Echoic and iconic allow us to experience the world as a continuous stream rather than in discrete sensations
(movie projector)
Short term memory: a limited capacity memory system that holds information in awareness for a brief period of
Immediate memory: the idea that this temporary buffer consists of our fleeting thoughts, feeling and impressions of
the world (RAM)
STM lasts for 20s unless you rehearse it repeatedly (telephone number)
Must focus in order to remember
George Miller noted STM is about 7 +/- 2 (memory span). Cowan said 4. Varies among individuals. Measure
of IQ
Organizing a string of letters into units makes it easier to remember
1.Memory span in limited to at most 7 items or fewer (letters, numbers, words, concepts)
2.Meaningful units are easier to remember than nonsense units chunking (more efficient, more you
remember) (chess)
STM is really an active processing unit that deals with multiple types of information of information (sounds,
images, ideas)
Working memory: an active processing system that keeps different types of information available for current use
(problem solving, reasoning and comprehension); the 3 components are: central executive, the phonological loop and
visuospatial sketchpad
Central executive encodes information from the sensory systems and then filters information that is sufficiently
important to be stored in LTM; also retrieves from LTM; relied on 2 subcomponents that hold auditory and visual
information temporarily
Phonological loop encodes auditory information and is active whenever you rad, speak or repeat words to yourself in
order to remember them; inner voice”; tend to make errors with consonants that sound alike rather than look alike
words are processed in working memory by how they sound rather than by what they mean
Visuospatial sketchpad processes visual information, such as objects features and where they are located ( keep
track of where the dog is and if it should be watched)
Long term memory: the relatively permanent storage of information (hard drive but limitless)
Duration and capacity separates LTM from STM
Ability to recall iterms from the list depended on order of presentation; items presented early or late are
remembered best <- serial position effect
Serial position effect involves: primacy effect (first items) and recency effects (last items)
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