PSY100H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Corpus Callosotomy, Fusiform Face Area, Unconscious Mind

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Published on 14 Mar 2016
School
UTSG
Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Week 11
Different Ways of Studying & Understanding Personality
Unconscious processes
oE.g., Sigmund Freud
Personal experiences
oE.g., Carl Rogers
Trait approaches
oE.g., Hans Eysenck
Cognitive approaches
oE.g., Walter Mischel
Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory
Emphasizes the influence of unconscious forces on behaviour
Defence mechanisms: Unconscious mental strategies the mind uses to protect
itself
Reality principle: Ego (executive mediator) - preconscious
Moral principle: Superego (internalized ideals) - preconscious
Pleasure principle: Id (unconscious psychic energy) - unconscious
Conscious mind: present awareness
Preconscious mind: outside awareness but accessible
Unconscious mind: not accessible
Constant conflict between the id and the superego which causes anxiety
It is the job of the ego to mediate between the id and the superego
What is Consciousness?
Consciousness refers to your moment-by-moment subjective experience of the
world (both the external world and your internal world, i.e., your thoughts)
oNo single area of the brain responsible for “awareness”
Prefrontal cortex: I understand plans
Prefrontal motor cortex: I’m all about movement
Parietal lobe: I’m aware of space
Temporal lobe: I see and hear things
Occipital lobe: I see things
Recall: Anatomy of the Brain
Left and right hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum
Corpus callosotomy (severing of the corpus callosum) is a surgery often
performed to treat patients suffering from epilepsy/chronic seizures
Split Brain, Split Mind
What happens if the corpus callosum is severed?
oTwo half brains, each with its own perceptions, thoughts, and
unconsciousness
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Images from left visual field go to the right hemisphere (and vice versa); your left
hemisphere controls your right hand (and vise versa)
The left hemisphere is the “vocal” hemisphere – it has control over speech
The right hemisphere has its own specialties (e.g., spatial relations)
Left hemisphere vocalizes a response, and it sees what is on the right side of the
visual field
The left hemisphere doesn’t know what the right hemisphere has seen so it
interprets the left hand’s response in a manner consistent with the knowledge it
has
Interpreter: A left-hemisphere process that attempt to make sense out of events
oCreates a comprehensible story out of events, provides a narrative
oTries to find patterns, relationships
Fusiform face area (FFA): Area of the brain that becomes particularly active
when people look at faces (some evidence that it is an “expertise” area and not
just for faces)
oLocated at the intersection of the occipital and temporal cortices, and is
usually larger on the right side
Are People Either “Left-Brained” or “Right-Brained”?
Is it true that, in general, the right and left hemispheres are each specialized for
different tasks (known as hemispheric specialization or lateralization)
However, the idea of people being “right brained” or “left brained” is very
exaggerated in popular media
And under extreme circumstances, one side of the brain can learn to perform
many of the functions that are generally done by the other side
oE.g., Children with rasmussen’s syndrome who undergo
hemispherectomies
Altered States of Consciousness: Hypnosis
Hypnosis: A social interaction during which a person, responding to suggestions,
experiences changes in memory, perception, and/or voluntary action
Depends much more on the characteristics of the person being hypnotized than on
skills of the hypnotist
oBeing highly suggestible does NOT mean the person is stupid or gullible
oRather, has more to do with the ability to get “lost in activities”, block out
distractions
Is it really an “altered state of consciousness”?
Altered states of Consciousness: Meditation
Concentrative meditation: Focus all of your attention on one particular thing
Mindfulness meditation: Let your thoughts flow freely, paying attention to them,
but not reacting to them
oLong term practice can decrease the reactivity of your autonomic nervous
system to stressful events
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Document Summary

Emphasizes the influence of unconscious forces on behaviour. Defence mechanisms: unconscious mental strategies the mind uses to protect itself. Reality principle: ego (executive mediator) - preconscious. Moral principle: superego (internalized ideals) - preconscious. Pleasure principle: id (unconscious psychic energy) - unconscious. Constant conflict between the id and the superego which causes anxiety. It is the job of the ego to mediate between the id and the superego. Consciousness refers to your moment-by-moment subjective experience of the world (both the external world and your internal world, i. e. , your thoughts: no single area of the brain responsible for awareness . Prefrontal motor cortex: i"m all about movement. Temporal lobe: i see and hear things. Left and right hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum. Corpus callosotomy (severing of the corpus callosum) is a surgery often performed to treat patients suffering from epilepsy/chronic seizures. What happens if the corpus callosum is severed: two half brains, each with its own perceptions, thoughts, and unconsciousness.