* Orienting reflex: The tendency for humans to pay more attention to novel stimuli.
* Vision: infants prefer bold back and white patterns rather than colorful images.
+ Preferential looking technique is used to determine an infant’s visual acuity.
+ infants’ poor visual acuity for distant objects when they are first born, it increases rapidly over the
first six months. Adult levels of acuity reaches after one year.
+ Fox’s Experiment for Binocular Disparity
ability to perceive depth develops between 3.5 ~ 6 months of age.
If the baby doesn’t have binocular disparity, he will see only dots and won’t be able to
follow the rectangle’s movement.
* Auditory perception in infants
babies have nearly adult levels of auditory function by six months.
babies have some memory for sounds
infants learn their mothers’ voice in the womb.
* Piaget developed the theory that children go through stages of cognitive development.
schemas: hypothetical cognitive structures that help us perceive, organize, process and use information.
assimilation : the process by which a new experience is placed into an existing schemas
accommodation: schema is adapted or expanded to incorporate a new experience that doesn’t easily fit
into an existing schema.
1. Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years)
children acquire info about the world only through their senses => they react reflexively to objects. Ex)
suck on a nipple, grasp a finger, recognize a face.
sucking other objects is an example of assimilation to the schema of sucking.
Sucking a toy or a blanket leads to accommodation with respect to the sucking schema
Object permanence: the understanding that an object continues to exist even when it can’t be seen. Ex)
an experimenter hides a toy under the blanket, in full view of the child, and the child finds it. However, if the
experimenter hides it under the other blanket, the child still looks for it under the former blanket.
2. Preoperational stage (2~7 years old)
children can think about objects that are not in their immediate view and have developed various
conceptual models of how the world works.
they begin to think symbolically. Ex) taking a stick and pretending it is a gun.
they cannot think “operationally”
base their reasoning on immediate appearance, rather than logic.
have no understanding of the law of conservation of quantity. Ex) pouring water in a tall glass vs. fat,
3. Concrete operational stage (7~12 years)
they can figure out the world by thinking about how events are related.
they begin to understand conservation.
children at this stage reason only about concrete things. They don’t yet have the ability to reason
abstractly, or hypothetically, about what might be possible.
4. Formal operational stage (12 years to adulthood)
final stage of cognitive development.
Involves abstract thinking, ability to form a hypothesis about something and test it through deductive
* Infants have innate knowledge
1. The perceptual Effect of Occlusions in Early Infancy
4 month olds were shown a rod that moved back and forth behind an occluding block. After being
habituated to this stimuli they were shown two events, one in which a solid rod moved behind the occluding