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development

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 11. Human Development
1. Critical period
A development stage during which young animals are able to acquire specific skills and knowledge.
if lacks this, they cannot acquire at a later point in development.
brain development goes thru periods during which certain connections are most easily made, assuming
the right stimulus is provided.
= Genie was trying to learn languages at a later age, but it was limited since she missed this critical period.
Thus, critical period is very important.
2. Sensitive periods
The specific points in development at which some skills are most easily learned.
Ex) learning second or third languages at a later year.
* Attachment promotes Survival
1. Attachment: a strong emotional connection that persists over time and across circumstances
> infant attachment leads to heightened feelings of safety and security.
> Infants have highly interactive social relationships.
> Infants are profoundly affected by the facial expressions of their caregivers within 10 weeks after birth and
may become very upset when their mothers fail to display emotional reactions.
> Attachment serves to motivate infants and caregivers to stay in close contact.
> Attachment is adaptive
> Infants who exhibit attachment behaviours have a higher chance of survival and consequently are more
likely to pass along their genes to future generations.
2. Imprinting : birds will attach themselves, usually to their mothers, and then follow the object of their
attachment.
3. Harry Harlow: infants need comfort and security in addition to food.
>Rhesus monkeys
> Wire mom vs. cloth mom è infants were calmer, braver, and overall better adjusted when near the cloth
mother.
> Harlows findings established the importance of contact comfort, allowing an infant to cling to and hold
something soft è in social development.
3. Mary Ainsworth Strange Situation Test
Three types of child attachment
1. Secure attachment: 65% of children, A secure child is happy to play alone and is
friendly to the stranger while the attachment figure is present. If attachment disappears, the child started
crying, upset and stressed. When the attachment returns, he wants to be hugged and comforted by the
attachment
2. Avoidance attachment : 20~25% of children, avoidant children do not appear distressed or upset by
the attachment figures departure. If upset, comforted by stranger. If the attachment returns, the child ignore
the attachment.
3. Anxious ambivalent attachment: 10~15% of children, A child is anxious throughout the test. The child
becomes inconsolably upset when the attachment leaves. When return, the child will both elicit and reject
caring contact.
4. Chemistry of Attachment
Oxytocin is related to social behaviours, including infant and caregiver attachment.
5. Parents play an important role in shaping the way their children view themselves as members of society.
* Perception introduces the World*
1. Infants tend to look more at stimuli that interest them
2. They will look longer at novel (new) stimuli than at familiar stimuli.
Thus, preferential looking technique is used in many perceptual tests.
www.notesolution.com
* Orienting reflex: The tendency for humans to pay more attention to novel stimuli.
* Vision: infants prefer bold back and white patterns rather than colorful images.
+ Preferential looking technique is used to determine an infants visual acuity.
+ infants poor visual acuity for distant objects when they are first born, it increases rapidly over the
first six months. Adult levels of acuity reaches after one year.
+ Foxs Experiment for Binocular Disparity
ability to perceive depth develops between 3.5 ~ 6 months of age.
If the baby doesnt have binocular disparity, he will see only dots and wont be able to
follow the rectangles movement.
* Auditory perception in infants
babies have nearly adult levels of auditory function by six months.
babies have some memory for sounds
infants learn their mothers voice in the womb.
* Piaget developed the theory that children go through stages of cognitive development.
schemas: hypothetical cognitive structures that help us perceive, organize, process and use information.
assimilation : the process by which a new experience is placed into an existing schemas
accommodation: schema is adapted or expanded to incorporate a new experience that doesnt easily fit
into an existing schema.
1. Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years)
children acquire info about the world only through their senses => they react reflexively to objects. Ex)
suck on a nipple, grasp a finger, recognize a face.
sucking other objects is an example of assimilation to the schema of sucking.
Sucking a toy or a blanket leads to accommodation with respect to the sucking schema
Object permanence: the understanding that an object continues to exist even when it cant be seen. Ex)
an experimenter hides a toy under the blanket, in full view of the child, and the child finds it. However, if the
experimenter hides it under the other blanket, the child still looks for it under the former blanket.
2. Preoperational stage (2~7 years old)
children can think about objects that are not in their immediate view and have developed various
conceptual models of how the world works.
they begin to think symbolically. Ex) taking a stick and pretending it is a gun.
they cannot think operationally”
base their reasoning on immediate appearance, rather than logic.
have no understanding of the law of conservation of quantity. Ex) pouring water in a tall glass vs. fat,
wide glass.
3. Concrete operational stage (7~12 years)
they can figure out the world by thinking about how events are related.
they begin to understand conservation.
children at this stage reason only about concrete things. They dont yet have the ability to reason
abstractly, or hypothetically, about what might be possible.
4. Formal operational stage (12 years to adulthood)
final stage of cognitive development.
Involves abstract thinking, ability to form a hypothesis about something and test it through deductive
logic.
* Infants have innate knowledge
1. The perceptual Effect of Occlusions in Early Infancy
4 month olds were shown a rod that moved back and forth behind an occluding block. After being
habituated to this stimuli they were shown two events, one in which a solid rod moved behind the occluding
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Description
Chapter 11. Human Development 1. Critical period A development stage during which young animals are able to acquire specific skills and knowledge. if lacks this, they cannot acquire at a later point in development. brain development goes thru periods during which certain connections are most easily made, assuming the right stimulus is provided. = Genie was trying to learn languages at a later age, but it was limited since she missed this critical period. Thus, critical period is very important. 2. Sensitive periods The specific points in development at which some skills are most easily learned. Ex) learning second or third languages at a later year. * Attachment promotes Survival 1. Attachment: a strong emotional connection that persists over time and across circumstances > infant attachment leads to heightened feelings of safety and security. > Infants have highly interactive social relationships. > Infants are profoundly affected by the facial expressions of their caregivers within 10 weeks after birth and may become very upset when their mothers fail to display emotional reactions. > Attachment serves to motivate infants and caregivers to stay in close contact. > Attachment is adaptive > Infants who exhibit attachment behaviours have a higher chance of survival and consequently are more likely to pass along their genes to future generations. 2. Imprinting : birds will attach themselves, usually to their mothers, and then follow the object of their attachment. 3. Harry Harlow: infants need comfort and security in addition to food. >Rhesus monkeys > Wire mom vs. cloth mom infants were calmer, braver, and overall better adjusted when near the cloth mother. > Harlows findings established the importance of contact comfort, allowing an infant to cling to and hold something soft in social development. 3. Mary Ainsworth Strange Situation Test Three types of child attachment 1. Secure attachment: 65% of children, A secure child is happy to play alone and is friendly to the stranger while the attachment figure is present. If attachment disappears, the child started crying, upset and stressed. When the attachment returns, he wants to be hugged and comforted by the attachment 2. Avoidance attachment : 20~25% of children, avoidant children do not appear distressed or upset by the attachment figures departure. If upset, comforted by stranger. If the attachment returns, the child ignore the attachment. 3. Anxious ambivalent attachment: 10~15% of children, A child is anxious throughout the test. The child becomes inconsolably upset when the attachment leaves. When return, the child will both elicit and reject caring contact. 4. Chemistry of Attachment Oxytocin is related to social behaviours, including infant and caregiver attachment. 5. Parents play an important role in shaping the way their children view themselves as members of society. * Perception introduces the World* 1. Infants tend to look more at stimuli that interest them 2. They will look longer at novel (new) stimuli than at familiar stimuli. Thus, preferential looking technique is used in many perceptual tests. www.notesolution.com
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