-The field of cultural psychology emerged because most researchers believe
that culture plays a prominent role in our mental lives. The second important
reason is to see if behaviors and mental processes are the same in all
-Cultural differences in psychological processes tend to increase as people age
and are socialized into their respective cultural worlds.
-Being socialized in a particular cultural context affects much of how people
think. The self is experienced differently across cultures.
Acculturation is the process by which people migrate to and come to learn a
culture that is different from their original culture.
-Acculturation requires significant and often stressful adjustment.
A common pattern of adjustment for acculturation forms a U-shape curve.
It has three phases: the “honeymoon stage,” “crisis,” or “culture shock” and
-The difficulties of immigration is the fact that people from different cultures
are not always treated with equal respect.
Frame-switching: the shifting of thoughts and behaviors to those
appropriate for a given cultural context.
Analytic thinking: is characterized by a focus on objects and their
Holistic thinking: is characterized by an orientation to the context as a
whole. There is attention to the relations among objects, and among the
objects and the surrounding context.
In general, analytic thinking is more common among people from
individualistic cultures, whereas holistic thinking is more common among
people of more collectivistic cultures, in particular those from East Asian
cultures, where it has been studied the most.
-People in individualistic and collectivistic cultures differ in how they relate
to each other.
Social loafing: the tendency for people to work less hard in a group than
when working alone.
-This is more predominant in individualistic cultures (Western societies).
-In collectivistic cultures, however, it is shown that people work harder in a
group than as individuals, called Social striving.
People in all cultures proceed through the same developmental framework of
moral reasoning. This framework has 3 hierarchical levels. The first level is
the Preconventional level, where people learn the cultural rules about
good and bad, but interpret these rules in terms of the direct consequences of
their actions. The Conventional level is when people identify with their
group and show loyalty toward it by viewing actions as moral to the extent
that they facilitate the social order of the group. The Postconventional