Exam Notes (6-12).docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

PSYB30 - PERSONALITY MIDTERM NOTES CHAPTER 6: GENETICS - Genotypes: specific gene combinations - Behaviour Genetics: study of the genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in personality and behaviour Nature and Nurture asAllies - Human behaviour and personality is an inextricable combination of both genetics and environment - Nature and nurture transact (can work separately, together or may influence one another) - Genotype-Environment Interaction: Certain environments have different effects on people depending on their specific genetic makeup (genotype responds differently to an environment) - Genotype-Environment Correlation: It may be impossible to separate effects of genes from effects of environment (genotype is exposed differently to an environment) - Phenotype: = Genotype + Environment + Interaction + Correlation Genes and Environment as Co-Actors Heritability - Heritability: amount of observed individual differences in some characteristic that can be accounted for by genetic differences (refers to differences across population/group, not a specific person) - Impossible to say how much your height is due to your genes but given a group we can say about 80% of height differences is due to differing genes - Heritability refers to the inheritance of a particular trait in a particular population at a particular time (so they can differ based on researcher and methods and time) Environmentality - Environmentality: amount of variance in personality accounted for by the environment - We see higher heritability in equalizing environments (environments that are the same for everyone) Shared and Non-Shared Environments - Shared Environment: aspects of the family environment that are generally the same for all children in the household - Non-Shared Environment: experiences that relatives have which make them different from one another - When family members resemble each other, it is more often due to heredity than shared environment Estimating Heritability - One measure of heritability is to calculate the correlation between twins on a given trait and compare the correlation between MZ and DZ twins (h = 2(r -r )) mz dz - Second way of estimating heritability is to compare identical twins who have been raised 2 in separate environments (MZA twins) h = r MZA - Double-the-difference method assume that twins were reared under equal environmental conditions PSYB30 - PERSONALITY MIDTERM NOTES - If MZ twins are treated more alike, that shared environmental factor could inflate heritability - Equal Environments Assumption: applies only to similar treatment that is related to specific characteristic under study (assuming the environments are equal) - Assumption of Representativeness: double-the-differences assumes twins are typical of a population - The r MZA has limitations – assumes adopted families of each twin are different from each other. If they are alike, may increase similarity between twins, inflating heritability - Selective Placement: selectively placing twins when they are being adopted to be in similar families. This makes the genetic and environmental effects inseparable - R MZA studies also assume that families that adopt are the same as families who do not - If adopted children are more similar to their birth parents than their adopted parents we can assume a higher genetic component Heritability of Common Personality Characteristics - Heritability of personality traits range from .4-.6 and is same for both men and women - Observed differences in personality traits = 40% genetics + 0% shared environment + 40% non-shared environment + 20% error - Heritability of all 5 Factors is in the .41-.50 range - Environment (shared and non-shared) account for 47-53% of variation - Whole field of genetics started withAugustinian friar: Gregor Mendel o Studied variation in pea plants - Alleles: different forms of the same gene o Alleles can be same or different; when different, one is dominant over the other (called Mendelian Inheritance) - 99.9% of human DNAis the same for everyone, it’s the 0.1% that makes us unique - Epigenetics: The study of how environment changes the function of the genes without changing the genes themselves - Genes are composed of coding regions (Exons) and non-coding regions (Introns) - Positional Cloning: if disease inherited, once we identify the exact gene involves we can screen who has the gene, and then replace faulty genetic code with new and improved code that has been cloned to mach precisely as possible the recipient’s genetics Genes and Environment:ADialectical Synthesis - Dialectic: a way of thinking in which contradictions are seen to be a part of a higher truth - It is sometimes difficult to distinguish genotype-environment interaction from correlation. Often comes down to sophisticated statistical tests to determine. Genotype-Environment Interactions - This is when people respond differently to the same environment because of their differing genetic makeup - Evidence suggests prolonged exposure to dopamine may lead to depression PSYB30 - PERSONALITY MIDTERM NOTES - Despite knowing which genes are related to dopamine functioning, they have been unable to probe that these genes cause depression - Another factor for depression is a certain region of the serotonin transporter gene (thinking is that depression may be caused by a lack of the neurotransmitter serotonin o Three variations of the gene: ss, sl and ll. S=short, L=long, two short alleles are less efficient at regulating serotonin so they are at risk for depression Genotype-Environment Correlations - People’s personalities affected the environments they found themselves in and also how they described those environments on questionnaires - When people’s experiences are related to (that is correlated with) their genetic inclinations we call this a genotype-environment o Occur when people with a gene for a specific characteristic find themselves in an environment that fosters or discourages the expression of that characteristic - The interesting question is why people with certain genotypes find themselves in ertain environments o There are three types of correlations: passive, reactive, and active Types of Genotype-Environment Correlations - Passive Genotype-Environment Correlation: when parents provide both the genes and an environment that is favorable to the development of those genes - Reactive Genotype-Environment Correlation: when parents are responding to something in the child (i.e. highly verbal parents who see their baby is babbling and they try to engage the baby in conversation) - Active Genotype-Environment Correlation: when people of a certain genotype actively seek out a specific environment because of their personality - Positive Genotype-Environment Correlation: When a genotype is exposed differently to an environment that is favorable for developing certain characteristics - Negative Genotype-Environment Correlation: when a genotype is exposed differently to an environment that is unfavorable for developing certain characteristics - Cattell- suggested that negative genotype-environmental correlation is probably more common that positive - One way to find a reactive genotype-environmental correlation is to look at twin studies over time, where we might be able to see changes in a child’s behaviour and if these changes correlate with changes in the environment CHAPTER 7: THE NEUROSCIENCE PERSONALITY - Group that learned meditation showed less anxiety, and showed differences in how their brain responded to emotional stimuli o Greater activation on left prefrontal cortex at rest and in response to positive and negative emotional events, and also showed better immune functioning - Best way to think of our physiologies is as a package of potentialities for personality What is Neuroscience and How Do We Study It? PSYB30 - PERSONALITY MIDTERM NOTES - Nervous system made up of: o Central Nervous System (CNS):Include brain and spinal cord o Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): Includes  Somatic Nervous System: controls movements of muscles  Autonomic Nervous System: regulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands. Is further divided into: • Sympathetic Division: mobilizes energy (fight or flight) • Parasympathetic Division: supports systems that replenish the body’s energy store - Brain protected by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that cushions brain, and flows through spaces in the brain called ventricles - Researches hypothesize differences in bodily responses, brain structure, brain activity and biochemical activity are all related to individual differences in personality Bodily Responses - It is the autonomic nervous system that responses to arousing events in the environment o When aroused the sympathetic division responds by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, blood flow to extremities, respiration, sweating and muscle activity - Sweating measured by Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) – skin conductance test - Muscle activity measured by Elecrtomyography – estimates electrical impulses of muscles during contraction and relaxation Brain Structure - Computerized Tomography (CT) Scan: takes a high resolution x-ray picture of the brain. By looking at thin cross sections of the brain, we can detect abnormalities or differences in brain tissue - Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): radio frequency waves are used instead of x-rays. Strong magnetic field causes nuclei of some atoms to resonate, then waves used to detect activity of the atoms - Since hydrogen atoms are present in all tissues but in varying concentrations the pattern of resonance formed by hydrogen atoms forms a multidimensional picture of the brain BrainActivity - Electroencephalogram (EEG): electrodes placed on scalp to monitor electrical activity of the brain. When electrical activity of brain or other part of nervous system is measured in response to specific stimulus it is called Evoked Potential - Positron Emission Tomography (PET): slightly radioactive glucose substance with short half-life injected into brain and person is placed in a scanner.Active regions use up more glucose than inactive regions - Functional MRI (fMRI): works same as an MRI but brain activity levels are monitored over time by tracing blood oxygen levels in the brain o Notable problems with fMRI: PSYB30 - PERSONALITY MIDTERM NOTES  Timing of response: when viewing stimulus our thoughts react within milliseconds, but blood flow takes 2 seconds  Small samples make it difficult to find a reliable and significant effect  Non-Independence Error: researches may unintentionally bias their results by not independently selecting which brain areas to correlate with variables  Confounds such as tie of day and nervousness of participant affect results of neuroimaging studies - Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: brief electric current passes through coil placed on head, the magnetic field disrupts the regular activity of those neurons BiochemicalActivity - Physiological differences may appear as differences in how the brain and body process various chemicals including neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs - Neurotransmitters: chemicals released by neurons to inhibit or excite the next neuron into action (i.e. norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin) o Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) are considered stress hormones – help body deal with threat by increasing blood flow to muscles which increases heart rate and blood pressure o Dopamine related to feelings of pleasure and helps regulate movement learning, attention and rewards o Serotonin is involved with mood regulations, arousal, control of sleeping and eating, and pain regulation  Depression, anxiety and other mood disorders related to how body processes serotonin - Monoamine oxidase (MAO): regulates availability of dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine in the system - Norepinephrine and serotonin may also be related to symptoms of depression – some anti-depressant drugs work by blocking their reuptake so they stay in spaces between neurons longer - Anti-Anxiety drugs work by mimicking neurotransmitter Gamma-AminobutryicAcid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter - Challenge Test: researchers administer a drug that is known to either increase or decrease a neurotransmitter functioning and monitor the impact of this new substance on reactions presumed to be related to the neurotransmitter Neurological Theories of Personality - Scientists are not able to find consistent physiological differences that relate in a clear way to differences in personality characteristics - Maybe biology has biggest impact at a broader, more general level of personality called temperament: set of personality characteristics that are: o Relatively stable across life span PSYB30 - PERSONALITY MIDTERM NOTES o Expressed through general energy level o Present from early childhood o Similar in other species of animals o Present at birth at least in a general way o Determined by genetic factors o Changeable with maturation and experience - All major personality typologies converge on three primary temperaments: o Extraversion: Positive emotion, reward sensitivity, social rewards, sociability, approach o Neuroticism: Negative emotion, anxiety, punishment sensitivity, withdrawal o Impulsivity: Psychoticism, lack of constraint, sensation seeking, novelty seeking, lack of conscientiousness, lack of agreeableness Eysenck’s PEN Model (Psychoticism, Extraversion, Neuroticism) - Extroverts tend to be sociable, popular, optimistic, and somewhat unreliable - People high in Neuroticism tend to be distressed, insecure, and upset in many areas of life. They are chronically worried, nervous and moody, hold a low opinion of themselves and find it difficult to get back on an even keel after an upsetting experience - People high in Psychoticism tend to be loners, egocentric, troublesome, manipulative, impulsive, uncooperative, hostile, withdrawn and don’t fit in anywhere - Eysenck drew on at least pieces of evidence to support the view that these are genetic and biological o Cross cultural universality in traits implies a strong biological component o People show tremendous consistency in these three traits over time, despite changing environments o Each of the three traits have moderate heritability Neurology of Extraversion - Thought the main difference between extraverts and introverts was arousal - Introverts had greater cortical arousal than extraverts, particularly in the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS): a pathway transmitting signals from the limbic system and hypothalamus to the cortex o Activation in theARAS can make a person alert and mentally sharp or sluggish and mentally dull o According to this Introverts avoid over stimulation, while extraverts seek more stimulation o If this were the case though, there would be differing arousal levels even when sleeping or resting, but this is not the case o This suggests the key difference is in the arousability, or sensor reactivity Neurology of Neuroticism - Thought physiological arousal could also account for differences in neuroticism PSYB30 - PERSONALITY MIDTERM NOTES - Eysenck thought Neuroticism had to do with the stability or instability of the sympathetic nervous system (parts involved with emotion regulation (hippocampus, amygdale, cingulum, septum, hypothalamus) o This is to say that the vulnerability of people high in Neuroticism to negative emotions is due to an extrasensitive emotional or drive system - While extraversion and neuroticism both deal with arousal, the key difference is extraversion deals with positive arousal (excitement, energy) whereas neuroticism is marked by negative arousal (fear, anxiety) - People high in neuroticism are sensitive to negative emotions in particular o If this is true, it would be difficult to identify specific physiological differences since people vary greatly in their sympathetic responses. o All in all there is no support for the hypothesis that Neuroticism is related to activation in sympathetic nervous system Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) – Jeffrey Gray - For Gray, personality is the variation in the functioning of the brain systems - Idea was to identify brain-behaviour systems that accounted for important differences among individuals and link these systems to standard measures of personality - First hypothesized two behavioural systems linked to extraversion and neuroticism, but now evidence suggests there are three important behavioural systems that do not exactly map onto any existing measure of personality - Gray’s great contribution was in recognizing that everything in the brain is interconnected - First system is fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS): associated with fear and is responsible for our reactions to aversive stimuli. Personality factor that matches this is fearfulness and avoidance - Behavioural Approach System (BAS): organizes responses to appetitive stimuli. o BAS makes people more sensitive to reward. Related personality is optimism, impulsiveness, and emotion of anticipatory pleasure. o In extreme this may lead to addictive behaviours, high-risk impulsive behaviour and mania - Behaviour Inhibition System (BIS): once thought to control inhibition of behaviour, but now hypothesized to resolve conflicts o Until conflict is solved we may experience anxiety, worry, rumination, risk assessment, vigilance for bad things or sense of possible danger/loss o When BIS activated people are more sensitive to punishment and are often more cautious - BAS is similar to extraversion and BIS is similar to neuroticism but the evidence suggests that they are quite similar but NOT identical o BAS is 2 parts Extraversion 1 part Neuroticism. BIS is the other way around Neurology of FFFS, BAS and BIS PSYB30 - PERSONALITY MIDTERM NOTES - There is a lot of evidence for this theory. RST appears to be a good general theory of emotion, motivation and learning in humans - Biggest issue is we can’t tell if there is a problem with the theory, or with the scales designed to measure the personality traits exhibited by these brain systems - Given that BAS is related to how sensitive people are to rewards, we would expect a difference in brain activity from people high and low in BAS o At least 5 parts of brain are related to responding to visual food cues: ventral (underside) of striatum, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, ventral of pallidum, and midbrain region associated with dopamine activity o People with strong appetitive drive as measured by BAS scores showed stronger reactions to photos of appetizing and disgusting foods - Important individual difference according to RST is how quickly people learn from rewards and punishments o People high in BAS will learn more quickly by responding; High in BIS will learn more quickly by withholding a response Then and Now: Phrenology - Phrenology: discredited theory of Joseph Gall from 1790 that size, shape, and location of bumps on scalp was related to particular mental or personality characteristics - Combe discovered that by pressing his thumbs on parts of exposed cortex of patients who had serious had injuries, he was able to change their behaviour. o Also discovered that some areas of brain filled with blood when thinking, dreaming or talking. This eventually lead to the fMRI - According to Wundt theories of localization fail to account for the connectivity of ideas in the mind and the complex interactions of brain systems - Diffusion tensor Imaging (DTI): special type of fMRI that traces diffusion of water in cells, it can highlight connections between cortical and subcortical regions - Suggested that prefrontal cortex and limbic systems are associated with the three temperaments - By studying preteen brains that are still growing Whittle hoped to relate changes in neural networks with behaviour and psychopathology over time - Researches in digital media at Drexel University used Combe’s observations of change in cerebral blood flow to design games in which the gamer controls the character’s actions just by thinking Neurological Correlates of Personality - Aconsistent finding is that the key difference between extraversion and neuroticism is in how emotions are experienced - Anhedonia: the loss of or inability to experience pleasure that may or may not be accompanied by the presence of negative emotions - Common agreement that Impulsivity is the result of BIS failing to inhibit behaviour Extraversion and Neuroticism PSYB30 - PERSONALITY MIDTERM NOTES Brain Structure Differences in the Cortex andAmygdala - Two main areas show difference in size depending on differences in Extraversion and Neuroticism: cortex and amygdale The Cortex - Introversion correlated with thickness of three sections of the right but not the left cortex (that is Introverts seem to have more grey matter in the right hemisphere) - Neuroticism scores negatively correlated with parts of the left, but not right, cortex (less gray matter in the left hemisphere) - This effect is stronger in males.And results confirm that people high in Neuroticism have lower brain volumes and that brain volume was not related to extraversion or other traits TheAmygdala - Extraverts have higher concentration of gray matter in left amygdala than introverts - People high in neuroticism had lower concentration of gray matter in the right amygdala BrainActivity Differences in the Cortex, Left-RightAsymmetry, and theAmygdala The Cortex - Extraversion and Neuroticism are each correlated with activity in temporal and frontal parts of the cortex area that controls consciousness o Extraversion correlated with activity for positive emotions, while Neuroticism for negative emotions Left-RightAsymmetry - Right frontal and prefrontal cortexes are more active than left during negative emotions whereas left portion are more active during positive emotions - Shy inhibited children, depressed adults, and those high in Neuroticism show greater right asymmetry; those higher in Extraversion experience greater left asymmetry TheAmygdala - While viewing happy faces extraverts show more activity than introverts in the amygdala - There was no relation between Extraversion and amygdala response to negative faces nor between amygdala and Neuroticism BiochemicalActivity - Differences in extraversion seem to involve dopamine, while for neuroticism it is serotonin Dopamine and Extraversion - Introverts more sensitive to fluctuations in dopamine as a result of sensory input - Extraverts have greater dopamine activity which could be because of greater responsiveness in general which makes sense because dopamine connects with amygdala which is more responsive in extraverts Serotonin and Neuroticism - There is evidence that extreme levels of anxiety and depression, as found in clinical depression, PTSD and anxiety may be related to low serotonin levels PSYB30 - PERSONALITY MIDTERM NOTES - People with lower levels of serotonin showed greater amygdala reactivity for fearful faces - People high in neuroticism may have stronger and longer lasting learned associations, especially to punishment Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking - Disinhibition: extent to which people have lowered social inhibitions and enjoy letting loose in the company of others without a thought about decorum, proper behaviour or social norms - Sensation seeking shows consistent gender differences and age differences: men higher than women; young higher than old Bodily Responses - Zuckerman once though high sensation seekers were trying to increase their arousal levels to an optimum level - Recent evidence suggests that the key difference may be in orienting or how people react to a novel stimuli, which may involve the reactivity of nervous system - Other evidence suggests that high sensation seekers have greater pain tolerance higher extraversion, less hypochrondiasis, and higher sensory thresholds BrainActivity - High sensation seekers have stronger reactions in parts of the brain related to arousal and reinforcement while viewing the highly arousing pictures regardless of whether they were positive or negative - Low sensation seekers show faster and stronger activation in regions related to emotional regulation and decision making BiochemicalActivity - Dopamine, Norepinephrine, epinephrine, MAO all show correlation with sensation seeking and impulsivity - Zuckerman – high sensation seeking comes from dopamine reactivity, low serotonin, and low Norepinephrine - Evidence suggests high sensation seekers have higher levels of dopamine and lower levels of serotonin CHAPTER 8: INTRAPSYCHIC FOUNDATIONS OF PERSONALITY - Attachment Theory: we form emotional bonds with our caregivers which become mental representations called internal working models of all future intimate relationships - Transference: unconscious redirection of feelings for one person onto a different person who resembles the original person in some way, especially from a person who was important in childhood onto a person important in present - Key premise of psychoanalytic psychology is that we form mental representations of ourselves, others and relationships from early experiences Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis Background PSYB30 - PERSONALITY MIDTERM NOTES - Freud influenced by scientists and philosophers of the day and believed he had a solution to the mind-body problem: instincts - He thought there had to be a similar energy source for the mind (psychic energy) and that this energy fueled the functions of the mind including thinking imaging, and remembering - Instinct: a tension, or an excitation originating from within the body - The habitual ways we deal with our impulses form or personality - There are 2 broad categories of instincts: Eros (Life Instincts) and Thanatos (Death Instincts) - Libido: psychic energy of the life instincts Uncovering the Unconscious - Free Association: patient relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, may lead patient to reveal unconscious thoughts - Dream Analysis: detailed examination of the content and symbolism of dreams to decipher hidden meanings o Manifest content: what is actually seen in dreams o Latent content: the true meaning behind the dream - Suppressed thoughts are more likely to appear in our dreams but this doesn’t have to do with desires or wishes - Parapraxes: mistakes caused by unconscious desires - Humor: Jokes give us a socially acceptable means of expressing aggression and sexual desires through laughter - Symbolic Behaviours: actions that seem innocent but represent deeper motives Then and Now - Complexes: what we call a schema today, are patterns of thoughts, memories, and perceptions organized about a theme - The idea that our reaction times can reveal our hidden thoughts and feelings is also behind more modern assessment technique: Implicit Association Test (IAT): Uses reaction times to measure strength of association between concepts Freud’s View of Personality: The Structural and Topographical Models The Structural Model of Personality: Id, Ego Superego - Id works through Primary Process Thinking: makes decisions without logical rules and conscious thought (pure instinctual energy, bundle of reflexes and urges) o Operates according to Pleasure Principle: wanting what it wants, when it wants it o Two ways of satisfying the id:  Reflex Action: through immediate physical action  Wish Fulfillment: imagining what it wants - Ego works through reality principle: tries to satisfy the id within the constraints of social and physical reality PSYB30 - PERSONALITY MIDTERM NOTES o Operates using Secondary process thinking: logical thinking, weighing the costs and rewards of possible courses of action - Superego contains moral standards. Has two parts: conscience and ego ideal o Conscience: contains knowledge of what we should not do o Ego Ideal: contains knowledge of what we are suppose to do The Topographical Model of Personality: Conscious, Preconscious, Subconscious - Conscious: contains thoughts and sensations that we are currently aware of - Preconscious: contains thoughts that are just outside of our awareness, thoughts that are easily accessible and that we are easily accessible and can readily summon into our consciousness - Unconscious: contains urges, thoughts, wishes, desires, and memories that were unable to know about o Can produce particular thoughts feelings behaviours and defenses in us related to our impulses and for this reason is often called the motivated unconscious - There is more of a continuum between conscious and unconscious than a clear cut line - Cognitive Unconscious: motivated and goal driven , the unconscious mind much like conscious can help regulate our thoughts emotions, motivations, goals and even intentions without all the conflict and drama Anxiety and the Defense Mechanisms - Sometimes the balancing of id superego, and reality is too much for ego and causes anxiety that can come out in physical symptom (conversion reaction) or psychological symptom - One way ego can prevent or lessen anxiety and acheieve a balance among desire (id) and morality (superego) is to use Defense Mechanisms: o Reaction Formation: instead of expressing a threatening id impulse, people express the opposite id impulse. o Isolation: when we mentally isolate a threatening thought by keeping it separate from other thoughts and feelings  Intellectualization: isolate the emotion so that we can experience thoughts or memories without the disturbing feelings o Denial: when we refuse to believe or even acknowledge a threatening or traumatic event or the emotions associated with the event o Undoing: a person who has either thought about performing or who has already performed an unacceptable behaviour attempts to nullify that action with a later action o Projection: we attribute our own disturbing or unacceptable impulses to another person  Not thinking about an undesirable trait actually increases in the tendency to see that trait in other people PSYB30 - PERSONALITY MIDTERM NOTES o Displacement: the true id impulse is expressed but the target of the impulse is changed into a more acceptable one (i.e. a child hitting a wall instead of their mom)  Often alternative explanations account for results better than displacement  Idea of displacement hinges on catharsis – build up of unsatisfied id impulses builds up and must be realised somehow  Release of id energy is called catharsis o Sublimation: change the unacceptable id impulse into something more acceptable  Despite intuitive appeal, there is almost no support for sublimation o Repression: Ego unconsciously keeps unacceptable thoughts or urges outside of our awareness. Suppression is the same, but conscious instead  Suppressing or Repressing thoughts only make us think about it more  People don’t forget traumatic event, just cope with it by managing emotional responses  No evidence that memories can be repressed and kept out of consciousness for significant periods of time o Rationalization: when people reinterpret their behaviour to hide their true motivations for their actions PsychoSexual Stages - Each psychosexual stage starts with a libidinal urge that is experienced in a specific biologically determined part of the body - Infant or child feels tension in erogenous zone and must find a way of gratifying the id impulse in a sociable way - Fixation: the result if someone receives too much or too little gratification at a stage - Freud – born with an id (the source of libidinal urges) and by age 2 ego is formed and we learned to control our bowels, and by 5 superego is formed as a result of resolving Oedipal complex. Oral Stage (Birth – 18 months) - Oral Incorporative Personality: lack of gratification early on; as an adult shows excessive dependency and trying to gain oral satisfaction by eating, drinking smoking, kissing - Oral Sadistic Personality: lack of gratification later on; as an adult shows aggressive behaviour, oral activities like gum chewing, nail biting, overeating and symbolic biting behaviours of sarcasm cynicism, and ridicule Anal Stage (1-3yrs) - Anal Expulsive Personality: obtain gratification whenever, wherever; as an adult : self- confident, uninhibited, nonconventional, and resisting of authority - Anal Retentive Personality: react to parental controls of feces; as an adult is rigid, compulsive, and lives up to expectations of others Phallic Stage PSYB30 - PERSONALITY MIDTERM NOTES - Castration Anxiety: because penis is the source of pleasurable feelings towards mother the boy develops this and lives in fear that his father will cut off his - Phallic Character: when Oedipus complex isn’t resolved; as an adult has overly exaggerated sense of masculinity or machismo - Hysterical Character: when woman is fixated dat this stage, she has exaggerated femininity. Latency Stage (5- puberty) – no significant development Genital Stage (-adulthood) Problems With Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development - He started with adults who had problems and looked at their childhoods, instead of watching children develop - Children from 2-5 don’t know genital differences - Boys and girls don’t differ in morality despite supposed non-development of superego in girls Psychodynamic Theory Since Freud - Some broke with Freud and started own systems; called Neo-Freudians - Some objected to Freud’s ‘id psychology’and developed their on ego psychology focusing on the ego rather than impulses of the id (pioneers included Hartman and Freud’s daughter) - Object Relations Theory focuses on the cognitive and emotional processes involved in intimate relationships: how we form close relationships, bond and cognitively represent important others o Concerned with impact of actual experiences instead of fantasy - There are 5 postulates that define contemporary psychoanalytic theory o Much of our thoughts, feelings, motives, defenses, fears, and wishes are unconscious o Part of being human is recognizing that we have conflicting thoughts, feelings, and motivations o Personality begins to form in childhood and shows continuity into adulthood o Mental representations of self, others and relationships are important o Personality development and growth involves moving from an immature, dependent state to a mature interdependent state. Attachment Theory - Been described as resurrection of psychodynamic theory - Bowlby – attachment system evolved to keep infants close to their mothers and safe from harm - According to bowlby o Infant who trusts that the mother will be accessible and responsive will be less fearful than an infant who does not have confidence that the mother will be available PSYB30 - PERSONALITY MIDTERM NOTES o This confidence is built up slowly from birth through adolescense and will remain relatively unchanged through adulthood o These expectations are fairly accurate reflections of the experiences individuals have actually had. These were referred to as internal working models - We form a working model of others and self - Working model of others comes from our expectations of our primary caregiver’s responsiveness - Working model of self comes from our feelings of worthiness, lovability, and competence as an individual deserving of help. - Aperson with anxious attachment may be overly dependent on others, whereas an avoidant person may be overly self-reliant - MaryAinsworth developed “strange situation” o Secure Attachment: children of sensitive and responsive mothers cried less, communicated better and enjoyed close bodily contact more. They are not clingy and sought less physical contact o Avoidant Attachment: other mothers were less affectionate during child’s first 3 months and frequently disliked and avoided close bodily contact with the child during the first year. Independent and unemotional during separation o Ambivalent Attachment: mothers inconsistent in responding to their infants. Infants resistant when mothers left, but didn’t accept mother’s comfort on return o Disorganized/Disoriented: parents full of fear, themselves or inadvertently behave in ways that are frightening to infant - Correlation between early attachment and attachment any later point in time is approximately .39 - 70-75% agreement between infant’s secure or insecure attachment in the strange situation and his or her attachment in adolescence and young adulthood - Attachment is reflected within romantic relationships in the future same as with mothers - Couples separating at the airport are much like the children in strange situation CHAPTER 9: REGULATIONAND MOTIVATION: SELF-DETERMINATION THEO. - Self Determination Theory: there is a big difference in engaging in an activity because of extrinsic reasons and engaging in the same for intrinsic reasons – reasons why we do are often more important than what we do o Extrinsically Motivated: acting because of some external pressures like rewards o Intrinsically Motivated: acting out of our own desires and by our own choice doing things that are fun or satisfying to us - People with intrinsic goal for learning put in greater effort than students with extrinsic goals.Also perform better when tested.Also those in a supportive context perform better than those in controlling Three Fundamental Psychological Needs PSYB30 - PERSONALITY MIDTERM NOTES - Self-Determination theory grounded in Humanistic Tradition: which emphasizes responsibility, growth and actualizing tendency. Sees people as active organism and seeks the best way to not only survive but to grow and develop. - Actualizing Tendency: Carl Rogers called this the motive to actualize or bring about growth and positive change - According to self-determination theory there are three basic and universal psychological needs: Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness o Individuals must feel that they can freely choose what to pursue instead of being pushed around o Need to feel competent at their pursuits, achieving mastery at tasks that are neither too easy nor too hard. Feeling effective in one’s actions and having opportunities and experiences to exercise expand and express one’s abilities o Relatedness is feeling connected to others, having people to care for, and to receive care from How Do We Satisfy These Needs FosteringAutonomy - Strategies that help individuals develop and express their own self are autonomy supportive - One way to support autonomy is by providing choice - Another way is to encourage initiative, giving people a chance to decide for themselves what they would like to do or how they would like to do it without fearing repercussions for choosing poorly - Recognizing and respecting the individuals point of view and feelings about the matter or helping individuals see how their actions relate to their personal goals, beliefs, or values helps autonomy Fostering Competence - Need tasks to be aimed at the right level, not too hard and not too easy - Need to know how to carry out a task and what the consequences would be - Need to know what is expected of them and need immediate feedback - Engagement in tasks that have a clear set of goals, that require appropriate responses, give immediate feedback and are operating at their maximum capacity can lead to positive state of flow o Flow: an experience marked by complete absorption, deep enjoyment, intense concentration, and almost an altered state, as people block out all irrelevant stimuli and focus entirely at the task at hand. Fostering Relatedness - Quality of relationships can increase the likelihood that autonomy and competence will be met. PSYB30 - PERSONALITY MIDTERM NOTES - People feel related or connected to others through involvement: interest shown in them and their concerns, the time a person spends with them and the energy that others invest in them - Part of what makes teachers autonomy-supportive is the warm, supportive relationship with
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