His dream was the psychological assessment would be used as a democratic tool and these did
not come true. No area of psychology where tests are used appropriately. Many educators also
worry about the problem of teaching for tests. Test for vocation or education. Say a test score
defines a student? Does this become a self fulfilling prophecy. Does gender, race or age affect
intelligence performance. What effect can labeling and stereotyping have on person. We don’t
have to believe in a stereotype. Knowing that people can judge us according to these
stereotypes. Saying women have a difficult ability to do a standardized test in math.Stereotype
says women do bad, and when brought in men and women to do a math test, women do bad.
How does this stereotype threat affect performance of a person’s life. Intelligence is a dynamic
cognitive process. Unfortunately, many of the psychometricians followed can use tests to predict
Howard gardner gave a new view oiof tests and their use. IQ are just one thing that can be
tested using tests. List of 7 intelligences: linguistic intelligence, psychological/mathematical,
musical, spatial intelligence, bodily kinesthetic intelligence, two kinds of personal intelligence;
interpersonal intelligence, and intrapersonal intelligence; understanding who you are, what are
your needs. So if you take 7 into account and the combinations among them, you can know of
thinking abilities that come from them.
IQ tests ut psychology on the map for US, but IQ tests have reached the highest point of utility
as they can have, but we need to move to a more broader view of intelligence. At yale, Robert
has been studying practical intelligence; being able to fid your way through busy streets such as
these, getting to a bank in the faster or shorter way. Person low in spatial ability might have
difficulty in figuring out which of those routes is th best. Subjects must diagram how to get to
places on a map. Ther eis very little correlation between these practical intelligences and IQ.
How much do standardized intelligence predict everyday life intelligence and prediction level is
very low. Test we have for managers evaluates a person’a ability to pick up what you need to
know to be successful in business and management.
So what we pick up on the job is very importan and Richard wagner developed practical
intelligence test and test predicts performance on the job twice as well as iq tests but scores are
not related to iq tests.
Neuroscientists coduct other experiements, they want to bypass mind and environment and go
to brain itself. Eeg recordings of p300 waves is sentive to sudden interruptions, and brain of
smarter person will have smaller p300 waves over time as it absorb new inputs and gets better
at overcoming interruptions but definitions not as easy.
So controversy of what intelligence relaly is is bound to continue, but we know individual
differences between us.
Are males and females really as different?
Group Differences in Intelligence Measurements Major and Obrien, look at threat responses in people’s minds and how that affects one specific
type of performance, academic performance and academic achievement and we shall focus on
stereotype threat, maybe you are where this is activated, maybe you care what this is, maybe
you make threat appraisal and you get nercous and maybe you want to disconfirm it, and this
paradocxically leads to worse performance.
Male and females have different performance. How do boys and girls compare to one another,
and whether you like it or not, these are the results that have emerged from thousands of
participats. Boys are doing better than girls are pos numbers and vice versa and in elementary
schools, girls are little better, but that slowly and steadily,that by the ime you reach adulthood,
men perform quite abit better than women ar eon math and this may be slightly differnet if you
look at performance in a classroom. Men and women may perform ewually, but after performanc
eon ahigh stakes test, these are the differene that emerge, and these things may have changed
over time, byt this is a difference here. This difference seems to be real.
Does this test measure math ability? What are reasons.
Next graph looks at white and black iq scores and intelligence and its not clear what IQ actually
measures and first of all, 4 grpahs largely overlap, on average groups are more the same than
fdifferent, however average for black is 90 on Iq, average for white is 100, 10 point IQ
difference, the gap has narrowed, none the less, it is still there and persistent, and proff doesn’t
like this, but this is what we get when we measure IQ, maybe there are ready explanations we
can use to explain this. There is a rich poor difference. People spent lots of money developing.
Like you to ask yourself about performance, black whit iq difference, male female math
difference, rich poor difference in Iq and ask yourself why are these groups different?
Why are there these differences?
Then answer some people give is that there are biological differences. Biology comtributes to
male and female, so why shouldn’t biology contribute to IQ.
Origina of Intelligence?
Can it be nature or nurture?
Intelligence is highly heritable.
Of you have intelligent families, you are intelligent as well. There is a high correlation between
parent IQ and child IQ. Parents and children live in the same home share the same values, but
we need some way to figure out the genetic vs. environment values of how intelligence affects
us. For fraternal twins, they are no more similar than other siblings. Also when children are
given up by adoption, they are related in IQ. IQ of identical twins are highly related, and took
identical twins and put them for adoption. One family tok one twin and another had diff family.
Their IQ was very similar to each other, but their IQ was related, so IQ was genetic. IQ related
to biological mother than adopted mother. Environment: what is the matter that environment could make a difference. IQ of twins reared
apart is les related than IQ of twins reared together. Having a similar environment, led to similar
IQ points. Fraternal twins share half the DNA than other siblings, but environemtn of a twin is
more similar to one another than environment of other siblings. Strong evidence that
environment works, IQ is more similar for household than children reared apart.zero overlap for
sntrangers, but some overlap for biologically dissimilar people reaised in same home. So
environment matters for sure. Also poversished envrioments related ton lower IQ than rich
families. The longer these children were exposed to the terrible environments, the dumber you
are, the longer you are exposed to a richer environment, the smarter you are. However, what is
the winner here?
But whats the winner here, both nurture and nature contribute to intelligence, some people say
the heritability index: % of IQ comeing from biology vs. environment comes from genetics 0.65.
so maybe genetics plays a bigger role. Given that intelligence is partially heritable, give that, this
explains the IQ differences between black and whie, rich and poor and between men and
women. Between group had differences too, maybe caused than within group differences.
Lets say you have a bag of seed, and this bag of seed has corn. The height at which corn will
grow is based o