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PSYC12 midterm chapter notes.docx.pdf

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Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 1Introduction to the Study of Prejudice and StereotypingIngroups group members tend to favor their own group and form closer ties Outgroups group members tend to be suspicious and rejecting of members of other groups even when membership is based on the most arbitrary criteriaEx randomly assigning people to group A or to group B an example of a minimal group Prejudice preference for own group forms the basis for negative feelings about other groups Stereotypes believing that certain characteristics are associated with other groups Prejudice and stereotypes form because the outgroup members are perceived to be antithetical to the ingroups welfare or values Some of the most intense intergroup hostility has been based on a difference in religious beliefsEx Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland Stereotype is most commonly measured through standardized selfreports that assess the endorsement of statements about the characteristics of a group feelings about the group and behavior toward the group and its members Defining Stereotyping Lippmans StereotypeTo describe the tendency of people to think of someone or something in similar termsthat is as having similar attributesbased on a common feature shared by eachBecause we all have pictures in our heads of the outside world and that these representations are more like templates into which we try to simplify the information we receive from the world such as what is important to perceive and disregard in our environment This process tends to confirm preexisting stereotypes by paying attention to stereotypeconsistent information and disregarding information that is inconsistent with our stereotypes The SocialCognitive DefinitionResearchers came to regard stereotyping as a rather automatic process of categorization that many cognitive and social psychologists believe is inherent in the very nature of the way humans think about the worldBrigham defined stereotyping as a generalization made about agroup concerning a trait attribution which is considered to be unjustified by an observer Problem with the last half of this definition is a stereotype is any generalization about a group whether an observer either a member of the stereotyped group or another observer believes it is justified or notHamilton and Trolier a cognitive structure that contains the perceivers knowledge beliefs and expectations about a human groupThis definition is also too broad ones knowledge and expectations about the group This makes it too broad and inconsistent with traditional definitions of a stereotype 1 This definition is more like a schema which is a cognitive structure that represents knowledge about a concept or type of stimulus including its attributes and the relations among those attributesStereotypes are more specific and are subsumed within a schema Ashmore and Del Boca a set of beliefs about the personal attributes of a group of peopleMore specific and consistent with past definitions Cultural and Individual StereotypesCultural stereotype describes shared or communitywide patterns of beliefsIndividual stereotype describes the beliefs held by an individual about the characteristics of a group Any measure of stereotype content in which the respondents answers are restricted to the stereotype content choices offered by the measure tends to provide an inaccurate measure of the persons stereotype of the groupThis is important because ones cultural stereotype about a group may not be the same as ones individual stereotype about the group The question is which of these two cultural or individual stereotypes tends to predict future behavior and attitudes toward a given group Contemporary researchers tend to be interested primarily in assessing individual stereotypes because many experiments have demonstrated that these are most directly related to that persons specific thoughts feelings and behavior toward the group Is a Stereotype an AttitudeAn attitude is a general evaluation of some object Any attitude is usually viewed as falling somewhere on a goodbad or favorableunfavorable dimension Although a stereotype is not an attitude an intergroup attitude is composed of ones thoughts or beliefs about feelings toward and behavior toward a particular group Researchers have traditionally viewed attitudes as comprising three components an affective component a behavioral component and a cognitive componentStereotypes represent only the cognitive portion of any intergroup attitudeThe other two components of an intergroup attitude affect and behavior correspond to prejudice and discrimination respectivelyDiscrimination defined as any negative behavior directed toward an individual based on their membership in a group Positive versus Negative StereotypesThey are merely generalizations about a groupPositive stereotypes like Asians being good at maths and sciencesPeople resent being positively stereotyped too Defining PrejudiceThe word prejudice indicates a prejudgment about somethingPrejudice can suggest an evaluation either positive or negative toward a stimulusAnother specific definition of prejudice is in which the individual has a negative evaluation of another stimulus 2
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