PSY100 ch 7-12.docx

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Waggoner Denton

Psychology Reading Compilation Chapter 7 Summary Memory: the nervous systems capacity to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge Change blindness: the common failure to notice large changes in environment Three phases of memory Encoding > the processing of information so that it can be stored Storage > the retention of encoded representations over time that corresponds to some change in the nervous system that registers the event Retrieval > the act of recalling or remembering stored information to use it Modal Memory model Sensory memory > Memory for sensory information that is stored briefly close to its original sensory form Short-term memory > A limited-capacity memory system that holds information in awareness for a brief period > Working memory 9 An active processing system that keeps different types of information > Chunking 9 Organizing information into meaningful units to make it easier to remember Long-term memory > The relatively permanent storage of information Working Memorys Four Parts Central Executive > Control system > Encodes info from the sensory systems and then filters info that is important to be stored in long-term memory > It also retrieves info from long-term memory as needed Phonological loop > Encodes auditory information > Active whenever a person tries to remember words by reading them, speaking them, or repeating them Visuospatial sketchpad > Processes visual information Episodic buffer > Temporary information about yourself Central Executive: coordinates memory Phonological: speech, words, numbers (rehersal) Episodic buffer: integrated info about yourself Visuospatial sketchpad: visual and spatial material Working memory is what we know now, it is like immediate memory. It lasts for 20-30 seconds. Long-Term memory VS Working Memory duration and capacity can work without one another. > for example some patients have no Working Memory but retain Long-Term memory > but the systems are dependent (in order to chunk info we must have both intact) What stays in our long-term memory? Rehearsal (distributed is better than massed) What are the different long term memory systems? Memory is not one entity but rather a process that involves several interacting systems Although they all retain and use info they encode and store differently Implicit Memory > Unconscious memories Explicit Memory > Process when people remember specific information > Declarative Memory 9 Cognitive info retrieved from explicit memory; knowledge that can be declared > Episodic Memory 9 Personal past experiences > Semantic Memory 9 Knowledge about the world Implicit memory Classical conditioning employs implicit memory Happens automatically Involved in repetition priming > The improvement in identifying or processing a stimulus that has been experienced previously Procedural Memory > involves motor skills Prospective Memory > Remembering to do something in the future How is info organized in Long Term Memory? Events important enough to be remembered permanently need to be stored in a way that allows for later retrieval Our perceptual experiences are transformed into representations or codes, which are then stored Memories are stored by meaning Levels of processing: the more deeply an item is encoded, the more meaning it has and the better it is remembered Maintenance rehearsal: repeating item over and over Elaborative rehearsal: encodes info in more meaningful ways such as thinking about the item conceptually or deciding whether it refers to yourself (we elaborate on basic info by linking it to knowledge from long-term memory) Schemas: structures in long-term memory that help us perceive, organize, process and use information Decisions on how to chunk data depend on this Help us sort incoming information Guide our attention to an environments relevant features We construct new memories by filling in holes within existing memories BUT, it can lead to bias, this occurs because culture influences schema Networks of Association: our knowledge of the world is organized so that things related in meaning are linked in storage Retrieval Cue: anything that helps a person recall info from memory It is easier to recognize a correct answer than to recall it Encoding Specificity Principle: any stimulus that is encoded along with an experience can later trigger memory for the experience Context dependent memory: we recall info easier when the recall situation is similar to the encoding situation. (if we learn info in a certain room, it will be easier to recall info when in that room as opposed to being in another room) > Can be based on physical location, odours, background music, etc. State dependent memory: enhancement of memory when internal state is the same in recall and encoding situations. > Studying when high, and doing test high Memory is distributed throughout the brain, but stored in multiple regions and linked through memory circuits Different brain regions store different aspects of information Hippocampus: spatial memory Prefrontal Cortex: working memory Temporal lobe: declarative memory Amygdala: fear learning Cerebellum: motor action learning and memory Damage to temporal lobes interrupts storage of new material without impairing access to the old material Temporal lobes are responsible for strengthening the connections among neurons when something is learned, but actual storage occurs in the brain region engaged during perception. (so if you see something, it is stored in visual memory)
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