Two Important Hypotheses:
• Sensitivity Hypothesis: Security of attachment is determined by the degree to which mother was
sensitive and responsive in handling infant during early.
• Competence Hypothesis: Individual differences in security of attachment predict individual differences
later in life.
• One may expect that because of the excessive caregiving demands on moms of twins they will show less
• One may expect that pre-term infants are less likely than full term infants to be securely attached.
• In many families a baby has school-age siblings. How does quality of attachment between mom and
each child affect the relationship between the infant and he sibling?
Knowledge of the Self and of Others Cognitive development, Social experiences-feeling adequate or
inadequate if around people with higher gpa- social groups.
The Self:( Hypothetical constructs)
• Self-Awareness: a social structure which arises through social experience.
1. Existential aspect of awareness- possessing continuity over time and having a distinct entity
from others. Two concepts: self-permanence- you are permanent. visual recognition of oneself-
recognize yourself as you.
2. Categorical aspect: children's ability to define themselves in objective categories. Ie/Age, sex,
size. What human category they are a part of.
• Self-Concept: cognitive aspect of the self- the subjective knowledge we have of ourselves a
psychological and physical beings. Based from your understanding of yourself. Person's values, culture,
interests. Ie/ boy grown up in Canada will have a self-concept of being a hockey player. Social
experiences you have the opportunity to be a part of.
1. Ideal Self- what you really love to be
2. True Self/Objective self: the actual, doesn’t measure up to the ideal self often.
3. Self Concept- could be consistent with ideal self or incongruent with true self. One self is not
stable, changes with cognitive development and social experiences. Nature of the competition can be
changing so ie/ no longer think they are smart.
• Self-esteem: an individual's feelings of his/her own worthiness and competence. Global evaluation of
one's self. Think of your self as a human being as a whole. Evaluative self. Changes based on social
experiences and development so is static but could be permanent. Low self esteem permanently with
abuse or other negative experiences.
• Emotional-self: self evaluation normally results in the production of affect. Ie/cant reach your desire
then gradually come to that idea lowering to ideal self to true self.
Stages in the development of self-Awareness in the first two years:
• 0-3 Interest in social objects, but no self- other distinction. More attention to their biological functions,
no perceptual abilities to develop a relationship in social experiences
• 3-8 first signs of self- recognition, based on contingency clues, but still tentative and unreliable.
Contingency-if point to mirror doesn’t know that it is them-rouge test if pass then first sign
• 8-12 emergence of self-permanence. Recognition of self through contingency. Emergence of feature
recognition. Feature recognition is more difficult.
• 12-24 consolidation of basic self-categories (age, gender etc.). Feature recognition without contingency.
1 Developmental Changes in Self-Concept
1. From Simple to differentiated: younger children form global concepts; older children make finer
distinctions and allow for circumstances. Self-concept at young age develops into a global statement from
global judgements. Ie/I am a great hockey player but I didn’t have a great game or I am a great hockey
player but I am not good in school.
2. From inconsistent to consistent: younger children are more likely to change their self-evaluation;
older children appreciate the stability of the self-concept. Ie/ kid had a bad day will never play again or be
average player but lack of competition allows to do better so perceive themselves as a great player and
them flip again with competition. When stable- doesn’t change self-concept or give up.
3. From concrete to abstract: younger children focus on external, visible, physical aspects; older
children focus on internal, invisible, psychological aspects.
4. From absolute to comparative- younger children focus on self without reference to others; older
children describe themselves in comparison with others. -ie/kid score a goal without competition and think
they are great without social comparison.At older ages they realize to develop a self-concept in areas
important to them must compare with other people.
5. From self-as-public to self-as-private: younger children do not distinguish between private
feelings and public behaviour; older children consider private self as 'true self'. Young kids say what they
think-lack of understanding that there are convention of different types of privacy people have.
Self Esteem Coopersmith
• Significance: how much is a person loved and approved by others. Should be unconditional, should be
separate from discipline.
• Competence- how well does a person perform tasks he or she considers to be important. If do well
things important to you then will feel better.
• Virtue: to what extent does a person feel he or she has attained the expected moral standards of their
culture. Kids who do poorly in high school often results in low self-esteem.
Power: how well and to what extent can a person control themselves and their influence on others. Ie/
there ability to control what they want to do or influence other people on what game to play-leader or
neglected. Handle public behaviour-control reactive.
Fostering Self Esteem in Children:
• Keep own self-esteem high.
• Communicate concern and interest with child.
• Engage in joint activities- so can later do themselves. Being part of success story, development and skills
they will learn to be independent, and parent spend time.
• Use reinforcement rather than punishment to reinforce rules. Reinforcement: ie. If you eat broccoli you
will get ice cream. Punishment-if you don’t eat broccoli, you wont get ice cream. Underlying assumption
is that you will do it, so assumption is met, and your meeting the expectation and reward is prepared
because you will attain it. Punishment is prepared in advance because not going to meet expectation.
• Encourage self-reliance and independent behaviour tempered with protection from too much pressure.
Expectations are consistent with child's cognitive development otherwise setting them up for failure and
then they won't feel good. Will not have competence, power, no praise for failure, or culture attainments.
Knowledge of Others:
• Learning to understand others is similar in some respects to learning to understanding oneself.
2 • It is unclear which occurs first but the differentiation of self from other is a long process. Theorists say
happen at same time, learning about our selves and others happens in social context, same time. Ie/ child
will attach themselves to parents-household is liberal beliefs until they are adults. Individualistic cultures
will have more of a distinction. Life long process.Attachments theorists-attachment plays an important
role about learning about themselves and others. Ie/ theory of mind-how others will behave in terms about
own needs and others.
• Children develop both a sense of self and of others through experiencing relationships
• Young children already have some capacity to understand that other people have their own feelings.
• Conservations help young children develop an understanding of why other people behave the way they
Theory of Mind- framework to understand others, to think about social situations
• Enables children to explain people's actions (observable) by suggesting possible reasons (unobservable).
Psychological, internal reasons to explain social behavior. Understanding motivation and their behaviour,
important to adaptive.Ages 3-5 theory of mind develops.As closer to 3 will not be able to differentiate but
grow will then learn gradually toward 5.
Develops 3-5 years old and becomes increasingly complex with age.
• May also assist in the explanation of emotions. Ie/why is someone angry at us, what did we do to make
them angry. Make analogies for their behaviour.
• Requires self awareness, the capacity of pretence and the ability to distinguish reality from pretence.
Children will play pretend games that they are someone else. It is healthy and annoy parents but kids are
able to do this showing a display how that something behaves. Over time, when start playing at 3, difficult
to differentiate between real and pretend, self and the pretend because not completely differentiated.As
they get older will be able to do this.
Development of Social Cognition-making decisions about social situations: reason, conceptualize, reason
• Focused on two things content: shift from physical and material aspects to more psychological
descriptions of self, others, and relationships.
• Structure: (simplicity, complex, integration) inconsistent findings because: it is difficult to define
particular shifts in the quality of social reasoning. Research is often descriptive and does not address how
children progress from stage to stage.
• Selman's work on perspective Taking 1:
• Interpesonal Negotiation Strategies (INS) 1
Stage 0Age 3-6 Egocentric viewpoint
o Stage 1Age 5-9 Recognition, but cannot relate perspectives to each other
o Stage 2Age 7-12 Can reflect on another person's point of view, but still not consider both at the
o Stage 3 age 10-15 Simultaneous consideration
o Stage 4 age 12+ Comparison can be made with societal points of view
Interpersonal negotional strategist 2 findings:
• Adevelopmental trend from concrete to abstract descriptive style
• Increasing ability to consider more perspectives simultaneously
• Pratt and colleagues showed that parents use scaffolding to teach their children perspective taking skills.
Sex Role Development
3 • Infancy-distinguish faces by sex
• 2 years- label by sex: being male or female as an important social category
• 3 years: sex-stereotyping in toy preference. In egalitarian family, raise children the same.
• 4 years: some rigid stereotypes about occupations. Tangible occupations they can conceptualize easily.
Ie/truck driver, policemen are men, teachers are women. Black and white world, still developing
understanding of the world. Will later learn to make exceptions.
• 5 years: association of personality traits with sex
• Sex: biological dimension of being male or female
• Gender: Sociocultural dimension of being male or female. If from a traditional culture, clear that
people's who's sex is males have certain expectations and female have another set. Ex. Men work outside
the home and bring income where women tend to family and don't bring income. In liberal, that
distinguish is the same in other cultures but is different.
• Gender Role: set of expectations that prescribe how females and males should think, act, and feel.
• Gender Role Stereotypes: broad categories that reflect our impressions and beliefs about females and
males- image of what typical male and female would be like. Use quick judgements, rely on heuristics.
Ie/in our culture women have long hair and men have short hair.
How do children display gender roles?
• Toy preferences- by age 3 as a clear pattern of choices emerges, although boys develop this pattern
quicker than girls. Ie/ not okay to dress boy in pink but okay for girl to dress in blue.
• Personality characteristics- from 2-3 years of age boys are consistently more aggressive. Don't see this in
girls. Seen in egalitarian families.
• Choice of playmates- between 1-2 years of age there is a steep increase in choice of same sex playmates.
Don’t have object constancy. Parallel play, prefer someone else in the room then gradually play with
another toddler. No preference for gender playmate until boys become aggressive. Girls are intimidated
and don’t play with boys until school years.
• Psychological and behavioural differences between boys and girls become greater during early
Gender Role Orientation
High Male Low Male
High Female Androgynous Feminine
Low Female Masculine Undifferentiated
Regardless of what your sex is you may have stereotypical feminine, masculine, androgynous, or
Feminine: nurturing, caring, emotional. Males: strong, assertive, rational.Androgynous: not completely
male/female. Males have primarily male characteristics and few feminine will do well. Females with primarily
female characteristics will do well. Masculine characteristics regardless of biological are more predictive of
Gender Roles: Theoretical Explanations 5 theories
1. Evolution/Sociobiology (sex is you gender)
2. Social reasons-Learning-conditioning and Social Learning- observation, role model
3. Psychoanalytic theory
4 4. Cognitive Development
5. Gender Schema Theory- Strongest, most empirical study. Includes Social reasons and cognitive
development. Cognitive development and social experiences.
Evolution/Sociobiology: Males and females have different purposes in life and behave accordingly. Their
genetic endowment is responsible for their different behaviours just as it is responsible for their different
physical characteristics. Ie/ only up to mom to carry baby for nine months, nurture baby and male role has no
part. Evolution related to behaviour and physical characteristics. Womens hormonal changes that make them
difficult to be separate from baby. Men will become stronger because they are the ones who hunt and bring back
food and will have ability to protect family.
Social Reasons: From an early age different parental expectations and treatment. Ie/ dad models certain
behaviours for sons to learn. Adaptive, enforcement and reinforcement and observation are three methods.
1. No Sissy stuff: differentiates boys from girls. Ie/ boy injures his knee and is crying
2. Be a big wheel: encourages boys to be sup