psy341 - TT2 artical readings.doc

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Ross Hetherington

Constraining heterogeneity the social brain and its development in autism spectrum disordercommon brainsystem level feature of autism developmental disconnectionofailure to develop normal connections between higher order association areas of temporal and parietal cortices and regions of the frontal corticesounderconnectivityoAccounts for symptoms and heterogeneityoFunctional connectivity decrease with age in children with ASDoProminent effects on brain connectivity from experience of profound early and severe socioemotional deprivationoCause or effect of ASDreciprocal relationship between brain disruption and atypical social development drives homogeneity in ASD presentation even in enormous phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneityproposed model ASD beings with failure in emergence of specialized functions of one or more of the set of neuroanatomical structures involved in social information processingoalters neural connectionsochild not able to accept opportunities of social reciprocity therefore impairs normal cognitive developmentoThe social braincomplex network of areas that enable us to recognize other individuals and to evaluate their mental statesRight posterior STS selective processes biological motionoactive when individual views human or robot walking not when inanimate object ie grandfather clockRight posterior STS is sensitive to prior emotional contextoexhibited more activity for incongruent trials when emotion shown by actress does not match her actions than congruent trials when emotion shown does match actionsoHOWEVER posterior STS known to be involved in attentional shifting to visual cuesNumber of attentional shifts equal between congruent and incongruent trialsoExperiment repeated with ASD vs control groupsControl showed greater activity for incongruentcongruentThis NOT seen in ASD groupASD hypoactivation of the right FFG and bilateral amygdaleoCannot be reversed by manipulation of eye movementoDisruption in directing eye movements to the key most socially relevant features of the face is the core feature in brain phenotype in autismshowed control ASD and paranoid schizophrenic groups faces and asked to rate trustworthiness or ageotrustworthiness age reaction time did not differoASD and paranoid schizophrenic groups significant reduction in right amygdale FFG and left VLPFCALoASD no activation of posterior STS in trustworthiness test1
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