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RLG 309 TEST 1 Review ALL TERMS AND ESSAY TOPICS DEFINED.docx

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Department
Religion
Course
RLG100Y1
Professor
Eleanor Pontoriero
Semester
Summer

Description
RLG 305Test 1 TermsEssay QuestionsAsian Values Debate found in Mahoney Ch 3 Gearon Asian values contrasted with Western and human right values and thus should be respected point to difference between Eastern community values and Western individual values both values can be found in East and West West identified in religious and cultural terms Christianity and dominant democratic political culture emphasizing attributes of tolerance moderationothers saw no particular virtue in such ideas Asian values prized as a part of Eastern culture as well as being claimed as the engine of the economic miracles which had at the time been achieved by several Asian societies values described as Asian include respect for hierarchies Asianstyle consensus the centrality of the family a culture of obedience and deference to superiors and elders and a sense of responsibility to the community no one has yet demonstrated adequately that the values labeled Asian are so very different from those long adopted in much of the West protest that human rights are of a western construct and that cultural relativity should excuse Asian nations from some of the mandatesof the human rights built up the United Nations and other bodies this contention was withdrawn at Conference in Vienna Asian people prefer order to freedomas the best means to secure economic growth cultural arguments favouring socalled Asian values were used by vicious elites to attempt to deflect attention from their repressive policiesGlobalization found in Mahoney Ch 5 refers to the expansion of the scale of human events activities and interactions from a local to a worldwide or global level distances have diminished and travel expanded through jet transport communications have accelerated and multiplied through new information technology geographical and cultural differences are being shared and becoming domesticated and commonplace no longer any remote quarters of the globeworldwide expansion of opportunities for trade involving faster and cheaper transport of goodsservices and facilities to global marketsglobalization of the economy technology and the media has also meant the globalization of problems the environment organized crimeneed for shared basic ethic of mankindLegal rights found in Mahoney Ch 3 distinguishable from moral rights legal rights are understood as those which are conceded and enforced by the law of the realm such rights vary from country to country and in particular countries might cover actions such as the right to receive social welfare a right to be protected from sexual or racial discriminationthe contemporary human rights movement hasas its main goal the effective translation of the moral rights inherent in human rights theory into meaningful and concrete legal rightsin apartheid regime that existed in South Africa Black South Africans were prevented by law from moving freely around the country from engaging in collective labour negotiations no legal rights to engage in these activities Peace found in Mahoney Ch 4 Augustine defined peace as the tranquility of orderwas not asserting that peace is the consequence of the order to be found in society or that preserving the social order leads to peace as one of its resultsidentifying peace with social order looked at from a particular pointof view its tranquility its calmness absence of disorder respect for human rights is an action of peace observing the aggregation of individual acts of human rights throughout the world constitutes a situation of worldly peace proposal to organize UN as a permanent arrangement for collectively maintaining future peace human rights are indispensable means of bringing about and maintaining world peacePositive rights found in Mahoney Ch 3 claim rights attention is focused not so much on ones freedom to act but on other people and on what I can morally require them to do in order to help me are viewed more as positive rights positive rights require that people take active steps to help me exercise my right require some positive response ie some act of commission and not simply the acts of omission supplied by the principle of noninterferenceWelfare rights found in Mahoney Ch 3 passive rights can be called welfare rights pointing to rights which require the provision of aid or help from othersdraw attention to the more recent passive social economic and cultural rights which achieved prominence in the 20th century and which focus attention on claims for the provision of certain welfare services by society rights to various kinds of welfare goods social and economic rights to such items as education or health justify greater governmental involvement through taxation claims to a fair share of scare social resources food and housing health care and opportunities for work can only be satisfied through organizations Critical consciousnessa concept developed by Brazilian Educational Theorist Paulo Freire that is grounded in Marxist critical theoryCritical consciousness focuses on teaching individuals to attain an indepth understanding of the world so that one can develop the ability to perceive social political and economic oppression and take action against the oppressive elements of society that are highlighted by this understandingCritical Consciousness is a tool to help read the world and assist individuals in the creation of a truly democratic societyUN Universal Declaration of Human Rightsis a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10 1948It is an affirmation of the moral consensus of the international community in the wake of the Holocaust and the bombings of Hiroshima and NagasakiIt is established upon principles of absolute equality without distinction and it formally recognized the inherent dignity and the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family as being the foundation for freedom justice and peace in the worldThe vote for declaration was 480 with eight countries opting to abstain from votingthe Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Peoples Republic of Poland Union of South Africa and the Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaThe declaration itself consists of a preamble comprised of seven paragraphs detailing the reasons for the adoption of the declaration followed by 30 articles detailing what the international community agreed upon in principle as being the rights of every human beingAung San Suu Kyi Burmese woman who was the Nobel Peace prize recipient in 1991 Known for being very outspoken about her disagreement and that she was insulted with the proposition that the Burmese were not fit to enojy as many rights and privaledges as the citizens of democratic countries This was to challenge the idea that the alleged dichotomy between eastern and western values is an idea that is brought forth by oppressing governments and not the suffering in order to excuse repressive policies It is also important to note that she was placed on house arrest for a number of years because of her comments and political activity which the standing government viewed as an obvious threatUN Millenium Goals these were the goals that were agreed upon by the UN in the year 2000 and the goal was to reach them all by 20151 Eradicate extreme povery and hunger 2 Achieve universal primary education 3 Promote gender equality and empower women 4 Reduce child mortality rates 5 Improve maternal health6 Combat HIVAIDS 7 Ensure environmental sustainability 8 Develop global partnership for development
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