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SOC101Y1 (208)

Test 2 Notes.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Christian O.Caron

TEST 2 NOTES Stratification -Layering of unequal categories of people in society (rich versus poor) -Focuses on structure of inequality and how people move between layers -Students in stratification study: 1) The structure/shape of inequality 2) The movement of people between layers 3) How and why these dimensions of inequality vary over time and place 4) Micro level- the everyday interactions that reinforce or disrupt social hierarchies Functional Theory-David Moore -Some jobs are more important than others -Jobs more important require more training and sacrifice -Motivation must involve high rewards (higher pay) Criticisms of Theory -Fails to identify which jobs are most important -Ignores pool of talent unused because of inequality (smart guy cant afford education) -Fails to examine how advantages and disadvantages are passed through generations (wealth passed from generation to generation) Karl Marx’s Theory of Stratification -Ability of capitalists to hire and fire coworkers leads to technological change and economic growth -Drive for profits cause capitalists to keep wages low and little focus is put on working conditions (opposed to protecting, feeding/supporting them) Critique of Marx’s Theory -Separation of opposed classes did not occur ▯ middle class emerged (educated workers who don’t do manual labor) -Middle-class emerging was stabilizing force of society ▯ had a stake in the economy that the lower-class people didn’t (could own houses, but stocks) -Didn’t work because of investment in technology, workers fought for and won state benefits and communism Weber’s Theory of Stratification -Person’s class was determined by their market situation- possession of goods, level of education, possible income and level of technical skills -Four main classes 1) Large Property owners 2) Small property owners 3) Property less educated employees (middle class) 4) Property less manual workers -2 other factors determining social stratification: -Status groups ▯ differences in prestige (honor) -Parties▯ differences in power -Solution-three columns of people and column with least amount of people get higher rewards -Level of stratification depends on the complex of class, status, and party Inflation & Real Dollars -Inflation is the increase over time in the cost of goods and services -Real dollars are cost dollars without inflation Terms -Ascribed status: Assigned at birth (birth, gender, age not changed) -Achieved status: By virtue of how well someone performs a role (promotions) -Meritocracy: Everyone has an equal opportunity to compete for higher ranked jobs and those most awarded are higher ranked Social mobility: Those who are were more qualified move up the social hierarchy to replace those who were less component Class Structure: Overall economic hierarchy comprising of all classes -Open stratification system: Merit determines social rank rather than inheritance (Canada) -Closed Stratification System: Caste system does not allow social mobility (India) -Exclusion: Refers to organized efforts of powerful groups to maintain their advantaged positions -Usurpation: Refers to the efforts of excluded groups to gain advantages and power -Absolute poverty: Argues that the poor are those who have barely enough to stay alive -Relative poverty: If your neighbour lives in a mansion, but you rent a basement, you consider yourself poor -Low-Cut off Income: Unofficial line that determines poverty -Intergenerational occupational mobility: Mobility within one’s life -Intergenerational Occupational Mobility: Process of reaching job higher/lower than parents’ -LICO line: Low-income cutoff line, if someone spends 63 percent of after-tax earnings on necessities (food, shelter, clothing), they are a low income earner -Merit: Rewards for good skills, hard work Race and Ethnicity Multiculturalism/vertical mosaic -Dissimilarity between groups in terms of power, income, and prestige -Occupational differentiation focuses on how men and women are spread amongst jobs -Race is perception based on physical characteristics -Social construct is used to categorize people in different ways -Major way to determine power and identify yourself -Racialization is a process by which people are put into ethnic categories -Eugenics is a way to make the next generation better EX: Hitler -Ethnicity is associated with geographical area Relations -Labeling leads to the notion of crystallization EX: If you move from one country to another, or a new area in the same country or a new job; the process is ongoing unless you always have the same job or never move Imposition versus Choice -Opportunities and moments where you can emphasize particular parts of your identity Ex: Language, holidays, etc -Those with less power have less choice Majority and Minority Groups -Minority has less power -Four different types of racism 1. Overt- creates certain stereotypes about a certain group of people; People are careful about expressing it out loud 2. Polite Racism- recognition that there are some things you don’t say but still feel them and try and say them politely Ex: “illegal immigrants” 3. Subliminal Racism- these people do not believe they are racist 4. Institutionalized Racism- embedded in rules and policies leading to certain groups being more privileged -Employment Equity Legislation- members of visible minorities have higher level of education than average Canadians -Prejudices are negative views and attitudes based on preconceived notions and range from race to appearance -Discrimination has two different views: -De jure meaning in laws -De facto meaning more subtle -Aboriginal people are the most disadvantaged in Canada Gender -Integral part of daily experiences of both men and woman -Sex differences start out small and are amplified by our gender infused culture Brain Plasticity -Theory as to how experiences regularly change brain structure and function -Your brain is what you do with it Sex versus Gender -Used to distinguish sex identity from learned gender roles -Gender role refers to the attitudes, behaviour, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned through socialization -Gender identity is a person’s perception of themselves as male or female -Sex depends on whether you were born with male or female genitals and genetic program that released male or females hormones to stimulate developments of your reproductive system -Gender refers to culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males found in the meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with femininity and masculinity Transgender and Transsexual: Category Breaking -Transsexuals believe they were born with the “wrong” body -They identify and want to fully live as members of the “opposite” sex -Transgender people break society’s gender norms by defying the rigid distinction between the genders. EX: when ones gender identity does not match ones assigned sex Gender Identity -Person’s perception of the self as female or male -Basic to our: 1) Self concept 2) Shapes our expectations for ourselves 3) Abilities and Interests 4) How we interact with others Gender Socialization -Women and men learn expectations associated with their sex -Parents- compliments, toys etc -Peers- how children play with one another -Mass Media- how women and men are portrayed regarding occupations, roles, characters Bechdel Test -Alison Bechdel invented a rating that is a standard applied to movies -Three criteria’s for a movie to pass the test: 1) Two named female characters 2) Who talk to each other 3) About something other than a man Masculinity -Is not a fixed or biological essence of men -Is a social construction that shifts and changes over time as well as between and among various national and cultural contexts -Power is used to define masculinity in contrast to femininity -No singular male sex role-various masculinities Sexism -Subordination of one sex based on the assumption superiority of the other sex -Sexism towards women has three components: 1) Negative attitude towards women 2) Stereotypical beliefs that reinforce and justify the prejudice 3) Discrimination, acts that exclude women Male Aggression Against Women 1) Intimate partner violence 2) Sexual assault 3) Sexual Harassment Gender Stratification -Channeling of men and women into different life situations -Employment earnings -Gender and politics -Housework and childcare Gendered Institutions -When an entire institution is patterned by gender -Patriarchy is a hierarchical system of social organization in which men are in control Employment and Earnings -Earning gap between men and women is a main part of gender inequality -Women earn less than men do at every level of education Factors in Earnin
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