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SOC102H1 Final Exam Reading Notes

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Lorne Tepperman

Final Exam Lecture 9 Punishment: Consequences for Crime Social Problems Ch. 7 Men more likely than women to be victims and offenders of violent crimes o Also likely to commit murder, rape, armed robbery, assault and arson Griffin and Miller (2008): Crime control theatre = moral panic running rampant when crimes are concerns o Public officials trying to address a threat and stop it when its actually something that will never go away o Drawing attention to the failings of organizations that have tried to help the situation o Ie. AMBER (Americas Missing Broadcast Emergency Response) Laws: formal rules about what a societys members can and cannot do Crime: any behaviour that is prohibited by the law Social order: harmonious relationships that occur when laws are followed o Allow people to anticipate anothers behaviour Social disorder: uncertain and unpredictable condition where rules are no obeyed Crime rate is dependent on the number of convictions o But not everyone who has been victim of a crime reports it o Creates a crime funnel Self-reporting: victim directly reporting a crime o Typically incomplete Victimization surveys: samples of people are asked how many times within a given period of time they have been the victim of particular crimes o But still subject to distortions Violent crimes: ~10-12% of crimes in Canada Conventional crimes: traditionally illegal behaviours that people think of as crimes o Rare Homicide: killing of a human being directly/indirectly by another human being o Theres murder and manslaughter o Men more likely than women to be victims and offenders o More likely to know the perpetrator personally Assaults are very common (~90%) o Sexual assault/harassment is another violent crime, but is very rarely reported to the authorities Stalking is reported more commonly o Likely to be former intimates and men more than women o Women who have been stalked report more depression and PTSD than battered women Vice crimes: deviant or immoral behaviour o High in organized crime o Ie. Gambling, prostitution, drug trafficking White-collar crimes: crimes committed by a respectable person in the course of their occupations o Ie. Fraud, bribery, insider trading, embezzlement, computer crime and forgery o Take advantage of gaps in social structure o More damage than street crimes, but lower on the govts list of things to tackle Organized crime: professional criminals who practice illegal activities as a way of life o Early thought: crime results from poverty and disorganized neighbourhoods o Now: crime (esp. in poor neighbourhoods) is highly organized and basic part of life o Strong connections to white collar crimes and vice crimes o Crime is a learned, organized social activity with historical and cultural roots o Grounded in traditional notions of kinship and friendship o 4 conditions for prosperity Conditions of scarcity and inequality Poverty and prejudice keep people from moving to find jobs Protection in communities that lack good welfare, health care, education, police protection High among people lacking a human and cultural capital Women commit fewer crimes than men and this gap is universal o Except in the case of intimate homicides where theyre almost equal o Women are twice as likely to be arrested for prostitution Ratio of violent crimes for men:women = 4.5:1 Men are 7x more likely to commit arson, 9x for murder, 10x for armed robbery, 35x for discharging a fire arm with intent to harm, 54x for sexual assault, 78x for rape Men: 2x for fraud, 7x for illegal gambling, 8x to vandalize, 8.5 for arrest because of drunkenness, 9x stealing cars, 11x break and enter Gender gap starting to close slowly o Esp. in young youth o Differential socialization: male subculture taught to use violence to solve problems o Hormonal theory: male testosterone reason for more violence Doesnt account for closing of gap Men more likely to be victims of violent crimes Domestic abuse is a huge problem, esp. in Canada o Govt wants to protect cultural rights of everyone, but cannot allow abuse to occur May need to take away patriarchal norms which allow for abuse to women and children as a way of punishment/control Sexual assault and rape mainly target women o Ambivalence of sex: women shown on TV and magazines, but when they take control of their sexuality, they are considered tramps or sluts o Whaley and Messner (2002): Ameliorative hypothesis = increased gender equality reduces rates of sexual abuse o Backlash hypothesis: increased gender equality causes increased rates of sexual assault Young people more likely to commit crimes than old people o Merton: young people more likely to use innovation to achieve their culturally desired goals Crime rates reflect 3 realities o Actions of criminals: measurable and measured o Activities of victims: may or may not report crimes o Actions of police: investigate and may/may not lay charges Finkelhor and Asdigian: 3 characteristics put people at risk of victimization o Targets vulnerability o Gratifiability: female gender for sexual assault o Antagonism Mesch: poor people more likely to be victimized than rich o But those with large properties are more at risk for being robbed Women more likely to be killed by intimate in private, men more likely by a stranger in public Old people (men and women) more likely to be robbed and killed during robbery Juveniles more likely to suffer violent crimes and know their offender Immigrants and ethnic minorities more likely to experience crimes against persons (hate crimes) o Also gay/lesbians, but they are more reluctant to report Inmates of total institutions more likely for assault, robbery, threats of violence, etc o Misuse from guards is also very likely, but hard to document Secondary victimization: occurs through response of institutions and individuals to the victim o Ie. Refusal of law enforcement to do anything about the victims reported crime o Discourage victim from seeking official assistance after crime Theoretical perspective of crime: o Functional functionalism Social disorganization theory: Crime results from a breakdown in social norms after rapid social change social disorganization = no social cohesion = increase criminal behaviours exposure to criminal acts causes likelihood of criminal behaviours increased cohesion decreases crime Social Bond Theory Travis Hirschi: establishing a strong social bond during childhood can reduce the temptation of committing crimes 4 elements
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