- people help to create their social circumstances and do not merely react to them;
- by underscoring the subjective meanings people create in small social settings, it
validates unpopular and unofficial viewpoints, thus increasing our understanding
and tolerance of people different from us.
- focuses on aspects of patriarchy, male domination in society;
- male domination are determined no by biological necessity but by structures of
power and social convention;
- examines operation of patriarchy in micro and macro settings;
- existing patterns of gender inequality can and should be changed for the benefit
of all members of society.
Socialization and Education
- Victor the wild boy: 1800’s, raised in isolation from human beings (by animals), “feral
child=without human socialization”, these type of children rarely adjust to socialization.
Are we a product of our environment or our genetics? Feral children suggest interaction
with human beings is necessary to release the human potential.
-Socialization: the process of learning culture and becoming aware of yourself as you
interact with others.
Education: is a process of socialization whereby knowledge and cultural know-how is
-We are biological beings; allowing us a capacity to be human ie Without the vocal
chords we have, we could not speak. Biology sets human potential.
-Sociobiology: biology defines more than just physical distinctions but also behavioral
Darwin’s evolutionary theory:
- The characteristics of each species vary widely.
- Species members with more adaptive characteristics are more likely to survive
- Therefore, the species characteristics that endure are those that increase survival
chances of the species.
-Logic of sociobiology: Men have many sperm, and men improve their chances of
reproducing their genes by trying to impregnate as many women as possible; women
monogamous and men less ie survival of the fittest.
-Sociologists take a different perspective. The norms of social institution are effective in
dominating any biological impulse of promiscuity ie marriage.
-Males are taught promiscuity as a gauge of their masculinity.
-Females taught promiscuity is negative; they may get pregnant, men cant.
- Human behaviors are socially mediated. Hunger---is affected by culture (what we eat,
when, why?)----eating. Cultural messages we receive about food affects our eating.
Impulse is mediated by culture.
- Anorexia is a socially constructed reaction to hunger.