WDW205TEST1notes.docx

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Department
Woodsworth College Courses
Course
WDW101Y1
Professor
Scot Wortley
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter I Criminology the scientific approach to studying criminal behaviorIt deals with the processes of making laws of breaking laws and of societys reaction to the breaking of lawsv Criminal Justice describes analyzes and explains the behavior of justice agenciesOverlap Criminal justice experts must understand the nature and cause of crime to design effective programs of crime prevention and rehabilitation Crime control penologyv Deviance the study of behaviour that departs from social normsOverlap When do deviant behaviours become crimes If an illegal act becomes a norm should its criminal status be reevaluated Sociology of lawCriminal justice v Deviance criminalizationlegalizationClassical Criminology Beccaria 1 People have free will to choose lawful or unlawful solutions to meet needssolve problems 2 Criminal solutions may be more attractiveless work greater payoff 3 Choice of crime can be controlled by fear of punishment 4 The more severe certain and swift the punishmentbetter controlPositivism 1 Human behaviour is a function of external forces beyond control 2 Uses scientific method to solve problem Lombroso 1 Offenders are born criminalscriminal anthropology 2 Born criminals suffer from atavistic anomalies physical traits of savages 3 Traits could be acquired through indirect heredity family history of mental illnesses and epilepsy or direct heredity family history of criminalsSociological CriminologyIndividuals relationship to educationfamily life and peer relations is the key to understanding human behaviour Quetelet first social scientists to use objective mathematical techniques to investigate the influence of social factors Durkheim crime is normal because it existed in every age and class crime implies that a way is open for social change and that the social structure is not rigid or inflexible crime calls attention to social ills Chicago School social ecology of the citysocial forces operating in urban areas create criminal interactions Focus on the function of social institutions and how their breakdown influence behaviourConflict Criminology Marx the most important relationship is between the capitalist bourgeoisie and the proletariatclass conflictCriminal Statistics Gathering valid crime datadevising new research methodsmeasuring crime patterns and trends Sociology of law Determining the origin of lawmeasuring the forces that can change laws and society Theory construction Predicting individual behaviourunderstanding the cause of crime rates and trends Criminal behaviour systems Determining the nature and cause of specific crime patternsstudying violence theft and organized whitecollar and public order crimes Penology Studying the correction and control of criminal behaviour Victimology Studying the nature and cause of victimizationaiding crime victimsConsensus view1 Law defines crime 2 Agreement exists on outlawed behaviour 3 Law apply to all citizens equally Conflict view 1 The law is a tool of the ruling class 2 Crime is a political defined concept 3 Real crimes are not outlawed 4 The law is used to control the underclass Interactionist view Origin 1 people act according to their own interpretations of reality 2 learn meaning of a thing from others reactions positive negative 3 reevaluate own behaviour according to meaning they learned from others 1 Moral entrepreneurs define crime 2 Crimes are illegal because society defines them that way 3 Criminal labels are lifetransforming eventsCrime a violation of societal rules of behaviour as interpreted and expressed by a criminal legal code created by people holding social and political power violators are subject to sanctions social stigma and loss of statusSurvey ResearchCrosssectional research interviewing or questioning subjects from a crosssection of the communityDesigned to measure the attitudes beliefs values personality traits and behaviour of a large number of participantsCosteffectiveCannot show how subjects change over timeDifficult to guard against misrepresentation of info or mistaken responses
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