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Astronomy 2021A/B Midterm: first midterm cheatsheet(ch2+6)

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Astronomy 2021A/B
Martin Zinke- Allmang

1)The general intellectual climate of a culture is referred to as its Zeitgeist. 2)A major purpose of Chapter 2 of Biopsychology is to teach you not to think about the biology of behavior in terms of traditional dichotomies. 3)The idea that the human brain and human mind are separate entities was formalized in the 1600s by Descartes.4)Descartess philosophy was called dualism. 5)Nature is to nurture as genetics is to experience. 6)European ethologists focused on the study of instinctive behaviors. 7)Asomatognosia is a E) deficiency in the awareness of parts of ones own body. 8)Asomatognosia typically results from damage to the right parietal lobe+affects the left side of the body. 9)Depicted here is the cortex of the right parietal lobe.10)One way to study selfawareness in nonhuman animals is to confront them with a mirror. 11)According to the text, the phrase, Reports of its death have been greatly exaggerated. sums up the history of natureornurture thinking. 12)All behavior is the product of above.13)The single most influential theory in the biological sciences is the theory of Charles Darwin. +evolution. 14) Darwins theory of evolution was published in 1859. 15)Darwin was not the first to suggest that species evolve, but he was the first to suggest that evolution occurs through natural selection. 16)Darwin suggested a mechanism for evolution: natural selection. 17)Horse breeders have created faster horses through programs of selective breeding. 18)Fitness in the Darwinian sense refers to an organisms ability to survive and contribute large numbers of fertile offspring to the next generation. 19)Social dominance is an important factor in evolution because dominant males often produce more offspring than nondominant males. 20)Courtship displays are important evolutionary phenomena because they promote the evolution of new species. 21)The conspecific of a vole is a vole.22)Evidence suggests that complex multicellular, waterdwelling organisms first appeared on earth 600 million years ago.23)Animals with dorsal nerve cords are called chordates.24)Which of the following are chordates?humans +vertebrates +Florida walking catfish+mammals 25)Which of the following is not true? All chordates are vertebrates. 26)Birds and reptiles are chordates +vertebrates. 27)The first animals to start to venture out of the water were bony fishes. 28)Frogs, toads, and salamanders are vertebrates+chordates+ amphibians. 29)Lizards, snakes, and turtles are reptiles+vertebrates. 30)Reptiles evolved directly from amphibians 31)Reptiles were the first animals to lay shellcovered eggs+be covered by dry scales. 32) Mammals evolved directly from reptiles. 33)One remaining mammalian species that lays eggs is the duckbilled platypus 34) Prosimians, hominins, and apes are all newworld monkeys+langurs. 35)Unlike OldWorld monkeys, apes do not have tails. 36)According to the simplest theory, the hominin line is composed of two different genera: Australopithecus and Homo. 37)The first hominins are thought to have evolved about 6 million years ago. 38)Australopithecines, the first hominins, are thought to have evolved about 6 million years ago. 39)Australo means southern pithecus means ape40)Well preserved 3.6millionyearold footprints of 1.3meter tall, small brained Australopithecines were discovered in African volcanic ash. 41)About 200 thousand years ago, early hominins were gradually replaced in the African fossil record by modern humans. 42)Metaphorically, evolution is a bush.43)The last surviving hominin species is Homo sapiens. 44)Sudden evolutionary changes are often triggered by sudden changes in the environment. 45)Scientists who study fossils are called paleontologists. 46)Approximately what proportion of all species that ever existed on earth are still in existence? <1 47)Which of the following are evolutionary changes that are not adaptive? spandrels 48)Which of the following characteristics evolved to perform one function and were then coopted to perform another? exaptations 49)Convergent evolution produces structures that are analogous. 50)A birds wing and a bees wing are analogous.51)Early research on the evolution of the brain focused on its size. 52)Which species has a brain larger than the human brain? whaleelephant 53)Modern adult human brains vary in size from about1,000 to 2,000 grams. 54)In terms of which of the following measures of brain size are humans surpassed by shrews? brain weight expressed as a percentage of total body weight 55)In general, the brain stem regulates reflex activities critical for survival. 56)During the course of human evolution, there has been a general increase above 57)The field that focuses on the evolution of human behavior is evolutionary psychology. 57)In most vertebrate species, mating is promiscuous. 59)The pattern of mate bonding that is most prevalent in mammals is polygyny. 60)According to one prominent theory, monogamy evolved in only those species in which each female could raise more fit young if she had undivided help. 61)Mendel studied dichotomous peaplant traits.began his experiments by crossing the offspring of truebreeding lines. 62)Mendels early experiments challenged the central premise upon which previous ideas about inheritance had rested. This was the premise that offspring can inherit only those traits that are displayed by their parents. 63)An organisms observable traits are referred to as its phenotype. 64)The two genes, one on each chromosome of a pair, that control the same trait are called alleles.65)Individuals who possess two identical genes for a particular trait are homozygous for that trait. 66)If an individual has a recessive phenotype for a particular trait, it can be concluded that each parent had at least one recessive gene for that trait. 67)In each cell of the human body, there are normall 23 pairs of chromosomes. 68)Gametes are produced by meiosis. 69)Just prior to mitotic cell division, the number of chromosomes in the cell doubles. 70)The letters of the genetic code are nucleotide bases. 71)How many different nucleotide bases are there in DNA? 4 72)On the DNA molecule, cytosine binds to guanine. 73)In Down syndrome, there is an extra chromosome in each cell. 74)Accidental alteration in individual genes during replication is called mutation.75)Illustrated here is the replication of a DNA molecule. 76)Female mammals have two X chromosomes. 77)Color blindness occurs more frequently in males than in females because it is a recessive sexlinked trait. 78)Sexlinked traits that are controlled by dominant genes occur more frequently in females. 79)Which of the following is a short segment of DNA that determines the rate at which a protein will be synthesized by a particular structural gene? enhancer80)Proteins that bind to DNA and influence the rate at which particular structural genes will be expressed are called transcription factors81)DNA is to RNA asthymine is to uracil. 82)Each codon on a strand of messenger RNA comprises three consecutive bases on the messenger RNA molecule. instructs the ribosome to add one amino acid from the cytoplasm to the growing protein chain. 83)During protein synthesis, each amino acid is carried to the ribosome by a transfer RNA molecule. 84)Mitochondria are located in the cytoplasm of cells. energygenerating structures of cells. 85)All mitochondrial genes are inherited only from ones mother. 86)Arguably, the most ambitious scientific project of all time began in 1990: the human genome project. 87)Construction of a detailed physical map of human chromosomes none of the above 88)The most surprising finding of the human genome project is that humans have relatively few proteincoding genes. 89)How many structural (proteincoding) genes are there in the human genome? 20,000 90)The study of all mechanisms of inheritance other than the classic genetic code and its expression is called epigenetics.91) Epigenetic investigation, although of recent origin, has already identified all above. 92)RNA editing is an important epigenetic mechanism: It occurs when small RNA molecules act directly on strands of messenger RNA.93)Tryon is famous for selectively breeding so called maze bright and maze dull strains of rats.94) earle (1949) found that, in comparison to mazedull rats, mazebright rats were not generally superior in learning ability. less emotional. 95)Cooper and Zubek (1958) found that mazebright rats made fewer maze errors than mazedull rats only if both groups had been reared in an impoverished laboratory environment. 96)Which of the following disorders was discovered by Asbjrn Flling, a Norwegian dentist? phenylketonuria97)People with phenylketonuria have high levels of urinary phenylpyruvic acid. 98)PKU is transmitted by a recessive gene mutation. 99)People with PKU lack the enzyme phenylalanine to tyrosine. phenylalanine hydroxylase. 0)In many modern hospitals, the blood of newborn infants is routinely screened for high levels of phenylalanine. 1) The sensitive period for the development of a particular trait is the period during which a particular experience must occur to have a major effect on the development of the trait.2)The sensitive period for PKU is the early period during which identified sufferers are fed phenylalaninereduced diets. excessive phenylalanine has substantial effects on neural development. 3)The male birds of many species are most likely to learn the songs of their own species that they hear during the sensory phase. 4)The sensorimotor phase of birdsong development begins with subsong. 5)The first twittering efforts of young songbirds are often called subsong. 6)Birdsong is commonly studied in male whitecrowned sparrows. zebra finches. canaries. 7)Zebra finches and whitecrowned sparrows are agelimited birdsong learners; canaries are openended birdsong learners. 8) In many songbirds, the voice box or syrinx is a double structure. 9)Canaries can sing with either their left or right hemispheres, but most have a strong lefthemisphere preference. 10)The canary songcontrol neural circuit is remarkable because the all above 11)Identical is to fraternal as monozygotic is to dizygotic. 12)The most extensive study of twins reared apart is the Minnesota study. 13)In the Minnesota study, the heritability estimate for IQ was 70. This means that IQ is none of the above 14)A heritability estimate is an estimate of the proportion of betweensubject variability occurring in a particular trait in a particular study that resulted from genetic differences among the subjects of that studylikely to be higher in studies with little environmental variation. 15)In the study of heritability estimates, increasing the genetic diversity of the subjects without introducing other changes would likely increase the heritability estimate. 16)Epigenetic research has found that there are genetic differences between socalled identical twins and that these differences increase with age. 17) The term identical twins should not be used because recent epigenetic research has shown that after conception there is a gradual accumulation of genetic differences between identical twins 17)Pinel ended his discussion of the genetics of human psychological differences with a description of the study of Turkheimer and colleagues (2003). The important finding of this study was that among the very poor, the heritability estimate of IQ was close to zeroamong the affluent, the heritability estimate of IQ was close to one. 1)In the early 20 century, the nature side of the naturenurture debate was championed by European ethologists 2)Asomatognosia is typically produced by lesions to the right parietal lobe 3)Modern biology began in 1859 with the publication of On the Origin of Species by Darwin. 4)Social dominance plays a role in evolution because dominant animals tend to produce more offspring 5)Mammals evolved from a line of small reptiles6)The first Homo species is thought to have evolved from a species of Australopithecus about 2 million years ago. 7)The incidental nonadaptive byproducts of an adaptive evolutionary change are called spandrels 8)Similarities between analogous structures result from convergent evolution. 9)The two genes that control the same trait are called alleles 10)All body cells of a human normally contain 23 pairs of chromosomes. 11)The nucleotide base thymine is found in DNA but not in RNA. 12)Messenger RNA carries the genetic code from DNA in the nucleus of the cell to the cytoplasm of the cell body. 13)Proteins are long chains of amino acids 14)The study of genetics has progressed into the age of epigenetics, the study of all mechanisms of inheritance other than the genetic 15)DNA methylation and histone remodeling are two epigenetic mechanisms.16)Mazebright rats are less emotional than mazedull rats.17)Individuals with PKU normally have high levels of phenylpyruvic acid in their urine unless they eat a phenylalaninefree diet. 18)Subsongs mark the beginning of the second phase of birdsong development: the sensorimotor phase. 19) Monozygotic twins are more commonly called identical twins even though they are not. 18) Turkheimer and colleagues (2003) found that the heritability estimate of IQ among the very poor was close to zero 1) Discuss the history and current view of the naturenurture issue.25 for describing the original naturenurture issue50 for describing how the naturenurture issue evolved25 for explaining the current interaction view of nature and nurture 2)Describe the model of the biology of behavior that has been adopted by most biopsychologists.50 for a verbal explanation of the model50 for a diagram of the model 3)Briefly summarize the main stages of human evolution beginning 410 million years ago with the evolution of amphibians. 20 for describing the emergence of amphibians20 for describing the emergence of reptiles20 for describing the emergence of mammals20 for describing the emergence of hominids20 for describing the emergence of humans 4)Describe and discuss four oftenmisunderstood points about evolution.50 for explaining four common misconceptions about evolution50 for explaining the modern view that has replaced each of the four misconceptions 5)Describe how structural genes are expressed, that is, transcribed and then translated into proteins. 25 for describing the transcription of mRNA50 for describing the translation of mRNA to protein25 for a diagram of the process 6) Discuss the human genome project and its major findings. What research has been stimulated by the major finding of the human genome project? 25 for describing the human genome project25 for describing the major findings of the human genome project25 for describing how the human genome project led to the birth of epigenetics25 for explaining the limitations of the human genome project in furthering understanding of behavior 7) Discuss the interaction of genetic factors and experience in behavioral ontogeny by describing two examples and the key findings that revealed the interactions. 50 for describing the genetics of two of maze brightness, PKU, or bird song50 for describing the interaction of genetic factors and experience for two selected examples 8)Discuss the behavioral genetics of individual differences, being sure to focus on common misunderstandings about heritability estimates. 25 for defining heritability estimates75 for explaining common
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