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2011.10.29 - Bio 1001 Midterm Definitions.docx

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Biology 1001A
Tom Haffie

Major Outcomes for Lecture 2 through 12Electronegativity The measure of an atoms attraction for the electron it shares in a chemical bond with another atom Polarity Separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electrical dipole or multipole moment Fatty acid One of two compounds of a neutral lipid containing a single hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group linked at one endTriglycerideA non polar compound produced when a fatty acid binds by a dehydration synthesis reaction at each of glycerols threeOHbearing sites Phospholipid A phosphate containing fatAmphipathic Contains a region that is hydrophobic and a region that is hydrophobic Desaturases A group of enzymes that synthesis unsaturated fatty acidsBacteria A cylindrical or rodshaped prokaryote Archaea Singlecelled microorganisms have no cell nucleus or any other membranebound organelles within other cells Eukarya An organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within its membrane Transmission electron microscope operates on the same basic principles as the light microscope but uses electrons instead of light Scanning electron microscope A type of electron microscope that images a sample by scanning it with highenergy beams of electrons in a raster scan patternEndosymbiosisSymboiosis in which one of the symbiotic organisms lives inside the other Cytoplasm All parts of a cell that surround the central nuclear or nucleotide regionCytosol Aqueous solution in the cytoplasm containing ions and various organic moleculesOrganelles The nucleus and other specialized internal structures and compartments of eukaryotic cells Plasma membrane The outer limit of the cytoplasm responsible for the regulation of substances moving into and out of cells Nucleoid The central region of a prokaryotic cell with no boundary membrane separating it from the cytoplasm where DNA replication and RNA transcription occur Cell Wall A rigid external layer of materials surrounding the plasma membrane of cells in plants fungi bacteria and some protists providing cell protection and support Chromosome The nuclear unit of genetic information consisting of a DNA molecule and associated proteinsRibosome A ribonucleoprotein particle that carries out protein synthesis by translating mRNA into chains of amino acidsFlagella A long thread like cellular appendage responsible for movement found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes but with different structures and modes of locomotionNuclear envelope In eukaryotes membranes separating the nucleus from the cytoplasmNuclear pore Opening in the membrane of the nuclear envelope through which large molecules such as RNA and proteins move between the nucleus and the cytoplasmChromatin The structural building block of a chromosome which includes the complex of DNA and its associated proteinsNucleoli The nuclear site of rRNA transcription processing and ribosome assembly in eukaryotes
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