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Biology Midterm Notes.pdf

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Western University
Biology 1201A
Jennifer Waugh

Origins of Life Cell Biology Microscopes Compound Light MicroscopeUsed the shortest wavelength of light to illuminate specimenLow resolutionMagnification 1000 times 100x objective10x eyepieceTransmission Electron Microscope TEMEnlarge surface image highly detailed version of light microscopeAllows us to look through objects can slice through an object Scanning Electron Microscope SEMHigh magnification of 3D image wo cross section Allows us to look at the surface of an object Cell FractionTaking apart cells to study the components using centrifuge Differential centrifugation spinning at increasing high speeds used to separate cells into different componentsorganelles sedimentation principleVirusNonliving host specific cells dependant on host for reproductiveOccur in almost every organismCan either have its presence shown or can show no effects on the hostPROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS All CellsSemipermeable plasma membrane Cytosol contained organellesChromosomal genesDNARibosomes protein productioneukaryotic cells are bigger because they have a larger area of internal membrane structures with specific functions that can support the increase in volume SAV stays the same Cytoplasm Mainly water 80 nucleic acids proteins lipids carbs pigmentsRibosomesrRNAproteins2 subunits combine to carry out protein synthesiscells that make a lot of proteins pancreas have a lot of ribosomes and prominent nucleifree ribosomes In cytosolbound ribosomes attached to outside of ER can shift to freeEndomembrane Systeminternal membranes are connected by transfer vesicles includes nuclear envelop ER golgi apparatus lysosomes vacuoles plasma membranea Endoplasmic Reticulum Half the membranes in Eukaryotic cellMembranous tubules and cisternae joined with the nuclear envelop
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