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Biology 2217B
Richard Gardiner

Lab 2 –Fibres and Dyes - Gymnosperm cannot be a dicot or monocot - Monocot refers to a class of plants - “cot”  cotyledon  seed leaf  from leaf Objectives - Understand the commercial definition of the wood fibre o Study sources of fibres in plants - Understand the paper-making process o Make a piece of paper - Discover sources of natural dyes and how used o Role of mordants and why/how used Review: Types of fibrs - Soft/bast fibres o From? Dicots - Hard fibrs o From? Monocots - Surface fibres o From? Dicot – “tree”; Monocot - “coconut seeds”; Conifer – gymnosperm - “cedar bark” o Any surface of the plant Part 1: Hard Fibres - Make a low power plan showing the differences in distribution of fibres in 2 monocot species o Agave sisilana (=?); make the slide, stain it with Toluidine blue  Looking for fibre bundles (botanical def), vascular bundles (commercial def – sclerenchyma on top and bottom)  Xylem is up and phloem down in a cross-section  Need strong fiber bundles keeping the vascular bundles intact (up and down), sides are ok o Musa textilit (=manila hemp); prepared slide Part 2: Soft Fibres - Make a Lower power plan of a ¼ stem of 2 different plants, emphasizing the difference in fibre distribution o Linum usitatissiumum (flax); prepared slide o Cannabis sativa (hemp); prepared slide o Differences: epidermis (smooth = linen, not in cannabis); bumps/globs (trichomes = cannabis  protection and increases boundary layer to aid with water loss); o Linen: underneath epidermis “specialized” parenchyma  chlorenchyma – (chloroplast – stains purple); fibre – schlerenchyma fibre bundles and commercial fibre (between schlerenchyma and secondary xylem – produced in ring : cambium and phloem); directly underneath fibre cap (primary xylem – little pockets) o Cannabis: size of stem is much larger, has larger fibre bundles; so hemp is better for cloth than linen – can be planted at high densities, doesn’t need as much water, don’t need a lot of pesticides  Order of tissue  everything else is the same as linen CSI: Identify sources of pulp - 4 different sources of pulp used: Photocopy paper, thesis paper (Rag bond) , paper towel,
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