P&P page numbers 328-329 and passage numbers 9.1-9.21
Angela pp. 221-225, 253-261, 293-322
Central Values of Roman Culture
• Military glory
• “Theater in the round”
• Largest: Flavian amphitheatre (built under the Flavian emperors)
• The Coliseum
• Every ‘Roman’town had an amphitheatre
• Roman word for gladiatorial combat “Munus, pl munera” actually mean “duties” or “obligations”
• Usually seen in the ludi, Roman religious festivals
• Given 5 times a year, 4-5 days in length
• Private munera could also be given
Origins of Gladiatorial Spectacle
• 264 BCE in funeral ceremonies for wealthy Romans
• 3 pairs only
• By 183 BCE, 60 pairs
• Ludi set up to cope with demand
• Earliest artistic depiction is Estrucan, ca. 370-340 BCE (earliest evidence althought not literary) Exam
Who Were Gladiators?
• Variety of situations and persons.
• POWs, criminals, and slaves condemned ad ludos
• Slaves owned by the lanista
• Volunteer free or freedmen: why ?
• Poverty-stricken men, wished to escape military service, those with a lust for fighting, etc.
• Gladiatorial schools same word as religious festivals in which they fought)
• Gladiatorial school, run by the lanista
• He managed or owned the troop of gladiators
• Acquired men by purchase and recruitment
• “Familia gladiatoria”
• 4 Ludi in Rome: Ludus Magnus, Gallicus, Dacicus, Matutinus.
• ? don’t know much
• Men practiced in the yard at first against a pole, with wooden weapons
• Non-criminal gladiators were not prisoners in the ludi.
• 12-13 pairs of gladiators per afternoon
• Editor – person who organizes and pays for the games
• Editors are aspiring politician/the emperor (popularity motives) • Pays to rend the gladiators from the lanista and also for their armor
• Really good fighters cost more
• Procession into amphitheatre from long end
• Musicians, gladiators with attendants carrying tabellae and palm branches, editor and his attendants,
horses, and statues of gods.
• warm up
• men fight with blunted weapons
• warms up the men, gives the crowd a forecast of their skill etc.
• Men carefully matched up
• Placard preceded each man
• Two referees: one principal, one auxiliary
• No rounds
• In a long fight, breaks could be given.
• Massages, drinks, & medical treatment.
How Did a Match End