The Topography of Rome.docx

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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 1000
Kelly Olson

T HE T OPOGRAPHY OF R OME Reading: Angela pp. 22-27, 68-75, 200-209, 218-220, 226-235 The City of Rome • Sited on the Tiber River. • Fertile, defensible, access to the sea, salt fields. • Seven Hills of Rome (have to know for exam): Capitoline, Aventine, Palatine, Esquiline, Quirinal, Viminal, Caelian. • The hills were separated by marshes, which flooded frequently. Earliest Settlement: • Evidence for settlement at Rome as early as 900/800 BCE (cremations and inhumations on the Palatine). • Early society: poor, subsistence, mud-and-wood huts. • (Evidence of these huts discovered on the Palatine about 60 years ago). • Do we have here archaeological confirmation of Rome’s founding in 753 BCE? • The Romans believed this • And preserved “tth hut of Romulus”. • Remains of an 8 century wall were discovered as well. Ancient Urban Planning • This addressed only how cities should be laid out • There did exist land surveyors and architects however • A‘Roman’town (wherever it was in the Empire) had several features: walls, temples, a forum, water supply, and paved streets. • Porticoes, baths, theatre and amphitheatre (didn’t get all slide) • In any town, the forum was originally just an open space, later walled and enclosed with a gate to control traffic • The amphitheatre was normally situated on the outskirts of a city (to keep crowds away) • Walls were built for security but also to control access to the city and set up (perhaps) a customs barrier. The Growth of Urban Rome • Rome’s expansion and consolidation of her empire is reflected in the fabric of the city itself. th • 7 century BCE: early urbanization (699 – 600 BCE) • Forum was paved, monumental religious architecture, shops and houses. • 4 century BCE: • City was walled, first aqueducts; new temples. • 200 BCE: wealth, art, slaves poured into the city; extensive building. nd • 2 century BCE: • The economic benefits of empire were providing a higher standard of living (for some): • Triumphal arches, porticoes, paved streets, marble temples. • Much competition for conspicuous exhibits: ‘prestige urbanism’ • But although architecture proceeded quickly until 100 BCE, there was still no real commitment to urban planning. • In the Republic the office of aedile was only for one year (they took care of the roads and planning, etc) • Dictators had the most success with the long-term organization The Influence of The Roman Generals • Sulla: reshaped Rome’s monumental centre in the 80s BCE: • Temple to Jupiter, Tabularium, the Curia, Marble paving in the Forum. • Pompey: first stone theatre in 55 BCE; first public gardens. • Ceasar: repaved the Forum, public gardens, Forum Julium, T
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