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Classics Sports Second Midterm Notes.docx

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Western University
Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2300
David Lamari

Classics Sports Second Midterm Notes The Ancient Olympics Olympic Origin  We don’t know how exactly the Olympics were laid out in 500 or 400 BC o Look at 120 Olympiad in 300 BC The Polis of Elis  Nearest community to Olympia, 36 km northwest, but 57 km by road  Pretty much just an athletic town, the towns attitude dominated by the Olympics  Included: o An old gymnasion, where athletes go through all customary training o Plethrion (100-footer), where Hellanodikai match wrestlers age and ability o The Square- another gymnasion, practicing wrestling and boxing  One road led to the baths and the other to the Hellanodikaion rd o 3 gymnasion reserved for the epheboi (young men), and also the Bouleuterion o Agora- marketplace, also used as a hippodrome Officials and Administrators  Agonothetes (Sponsor) o Each Olympics was overseen by one or two of these, who paid out of their pockets for the games o But they were private wealthy citizens who volunteered to pay for these Olympics because they were a great honour  They would even compete for the honour  Hellanodikai o Dikai means judge, Hellano means of the Greeks  Stabilized at 10 of them in 328 o Chose judges from their community, trained 10 months before the Olympics o They had complete say over who were the winners o Elis paid for all of their expenses o Were split into subcommittees: horse races, footraces and heavy  Nomophylakes- Guardians of the Law o Long term veterans that would train Hellanodikai every Olympics  50-Member Boule (Olympic Council) o We don’t really know they’re responsibilities, but athletes would appeal to them if they are not happy with a Hellanodikai judgement Truce Declared (the Ekecheiria)  At some point well before each Olympics (book says month) there was a truce declared and every Greek had to acknowledge it o Once the communities acknowledge they put up these scriptures on stones everywhere  Had the name of region, name of cities within it and 1-3 key people of each city  These people were the theorodokoi or envoy-recievers and were local reps of the games o Throughout Greece, no matter what was happening, safe travel is insured  Was broadcast by envoys called theoroi, or spondophoroi (truce-bearers)  Alexander’s father, had Alexander and his soldiers peace keep, but they robbed someone and then they got in a bunch of shit o So realizing his mistake Participants Arrive at Elis  Pre-Approval o Had to arrive a month before, and go through a custom of some sorts?  Athletes who were late and could not prove illness, pirates or shipwreck were assessed a fine, and were flogged if wasn’t paid  If you had a strong accent they might become suspicious o During this month they would you assign you who to work out with  Explains victories without any actual competition o Macedonian, Alexander a different King tried to enter into the Olympics, and had to prove his ancestry back to Hercules and the Dorians o About 85% of Greeks own their own land? o Swear an oath that they had adhered to 10 months of training  Trial Matches, Some withdrawals Site Preparation  Originally pasture grounds o Had to be drained, building repaired and painted, dig and re-roll tracks, white-earth (probably to mark lanes), but up hysplex II (Philon)  Up until the 3 century BC, athletes had to go down and help clear and prepare the site preparation  Permanent staff of officials had to take of Olympia through out months o Many on-call officers like sacrificing priest, flutist, libation pourers and dancers, woodman, butcher, and bailiffs  They were paid with animal skin and monopoly on firewood for sacrifices Journey from Elis to Olympia th  On August 6 , everyone who’s going to Olympia heads out for an overnight trip o Absolutely everyone, like every single person and thing (oxen), a procession of thousands  Before they left Elis the athletes had to swear and say they were worthy and uphold rules  Sanctuary-sacred area o Before they entered the sanctuary, on the morning of August 7, Hellonodikai stopped at the spring Pieria bathed in pigs blood and water that purifies them  The judges for sure, maybe other people as well Arrival Day  Final Procession to the Bouleuterion (Council Building) o Everyone who’s been marching goes here  Here they make a final Oath in front of Zeus Horkois (Zeus of Oath) o That they will not be bribed etc. o Then all the athletes, their immediate family and their trainers all have to take an oath that they won’t do anything evil  After the Oaths are taken the Athletes get assessed again o Are you Greek, have you been training for 10 months o Boule assess if their an adult or youth a second-time  People has nightmares about it o Certification for horses we’re also made  2-extra Olympic Contests o The herald(keryx) and the trumpeter (salpinktes) Order of Olympic Events After 472  August 8 Day 1 Parade thru Olympia: Equestrian and Pentathlon o Set out from the Prytaneion (sacred flame) including judges and athletes stop at 63 different altars  One of the altars were Zeus Apomyios (Fly Aveter)  Priests and Hellanodikai are clad in purple  Actually more altars, but were not important to ceremony  Stopping at the altar of Zeus and giving up their sacrifices  All the competitors would be heralded  People can still challenge that they have a criminal record or was not Greek  Name, father’s name and native-city o First Equestrian  1. Tethrippon (Four-horse chariot), 2. Keles (horseback), 3. Synoris (two-horse), 4. Tethrippon polikon o Then Pentathlon o Evidence that day ended with sacrifices at Pelops shrine o Night was night of fullmoon PANSELINOS, A religious high point of the games  Most of the ashe comes from this day on this altar th  August 9 , Day 2 o Parade and Sacrifice  A big festival hostes by ambassadors of city states  Sacrifice of hundred oxen to Zeus, their thighs burned and the rest eaten o Boys Events? Paides  Were separate from men, so must be on this day, but Miller suspects the morning of next day because everyone is stuffed from feast  August 10 , Day 3 Footraces and Full Contact Events o Footraces  Dolichos to warm people up, then stadion in two heats 44 people, then diaulos o Pale, Pyx, then Pankration, then Hoplitodromos  Pairing was probably done this day  A mastigophoros was a slave whip-bearer who would make sure athlete didn’t turn over his bean till every drew  You could ask to change the order for a little bit of rest  Often juggled to accommodate favoured athletes o One wrestling favourite was so unpopular, that the event was cancelled th  August 11 , Day 4 Awards and Banquets o In the morning a traditional presentation of the crowned olives  Must be cut with a golden sickle by a boy whos parents are both still living  The crowns are placed on gold ivory table in temple of hera, made by Kolotes o All the athletes and officials were invited to Banquet later in the Prytaneion  Nature of Prizes o Olive crown, as well as a ribbon (tainia) and palm branch [ klados phoinikos] (symbol of honour) o A victory lap (periageirmos) cause you’re a boss o Fans would shower flowers and ribbons, a tradition known as the phyllobolia  Akousilaos and Damagetos (boxing and pankration) picked up their father, Diagoras on their shoulders and they carried him around  Everyone shouts die now you’ll never be happier o From your own cities you might get a lot more  Known as an eiselasis, triumphal entry into the city, free meal a day for the rest of their lives, and statues The Money Games Stephantic VS Chrematitic  Lesser games were either sponsored by sanctuary or a city-state, but both were chrematitic o Chremata- word for money  Prizes were either cash, or something that could be converted in cash  Games weren’t protected by a sacred truth Panathenaia: All-Athens  In honour of Athena, and most famous of the Chrematitic Games  Social Functions of Money Games o Political and preparation  Held Yearly, and these were only open to citizens of Athens  Aptly called ‘civic’ competition o Prizes are significantly smaller than that of Greater, and also many victors are not individuals but teams o All competitions also had a decidedly military slant o The processional two-horse chariot, might be part of opening the festical, including neater riders  Civil games are important because they suggest military preparation through the o Trireme, prizes of communal meals ‘Greater Panathenaia”  Organized in 566, and we’re “open” Every Fourth Year to all Greeks  Included every agon o Kithara singer, aulos singers, kithara player and aulous player  New Events Included: o  Prizes we’re amphoras filled with oil that depicted Athena on one-side and the competition won on the other o Amphora was the treasure, where the oil was the economic importance o They were 38.9 litres, or one metretes, olive oil can be valued at $5 a litre o Younger men received less amphoras, then those of men th o There were also prizes up to 5 place (in the musical competition?) and they were paid in cash  Competitions were valued over others, ex. Kithara player only one half of kithara singer  One drachma was a daily wage of a skilled worker, so must be worth around $100 today  And the prizes were 1000s to hundreds of these drachma 2 Sets of Administrators  Selected at random  First set: secular activities  second set: sacred activities  funds: public + private 7-10 Days  Panathenaic Way  Stadium built 4th C  Open and Athenian events Open Events  Day 1: musical contests: boys and men  Day 2: athletic contests: boys/youths  Day 3: open athletic contests: men o Only running event seemed to be the stadion per inscription o However a full pentathlon, pale, pyx and pankration for all three age categories (Andres, ageneioi, paides)  Day 4: Open equestrian contests o Only last two events of hippikos preserved, the two-horse race for fouls and full grown horse  Prize was probably greater then any gymnikos agon, but probably less then the four horse chariot, which we see on amphoras Days 5-7- Athenian Events  Day 5 o Pyrriche  Military ballet, young men in helmets or shields, coordinated movements and acrobatics  Each group repped a tribe, and the cost of the production was by a choregos (sponsor) from the tribe o Hoplomachia  Amphora is shorter o Equestrian  Anthippasia: Mock Cavalry Battle  Javelin Throwing from Horseback  Determined on accuracy, no ankyle loop, and wore petasos (hat) and chlamys (cloak)m sybols of young men in training for preparation og Athenian citizenship o War Contests (anthippasia)  Each side with five tribes, face each other and charge through other lines three times  Best operated is given victyory o Eundria: Beauty Contest  Prize went to a team and not a individual, so might have been tribe vs tribe  The winners were the most handsome and were allowed to bear sacred objects in the Panathenaic procession o Torch Race (lampadedromia)  10 teams from each tribe that consisted of 40 members, raced a relay from the Akademt to the Akropolis. Was a favorite of Attic vase painters  One source says race began at Altar of Promehteus, others the Altar of Eros  2.5km, each member running maybe 60 m  Torches had to keep burning  Two prizes, one for an individual the other for the team  Individual one must be for the anchor runner, because a vase shows hydria (one of the prizes) at the base of altar of Athena Polias, believe that the prize is waiting for him  Bringing the fire from Akademy to Athena’s altar for sacrifice was a symbolic act celebrating Athens as a civic entity o Evening Feasts  Day 6 o Panathenaic Procession  Heart of the Panathenaia  Went up to the Parthenon w/ animals and gifts(robe for Athena)  Day 7 o Apobates  Chariot teams of 4 horses, a charioteer, and a armed warrior, one team for each of 10 tribes  Warrior dismounted at specified places, ran alongside and the mounted again  Reference to collisions, suggests that there were several laps o Boat Races  Some suggest 50 km, but most believe this distance is too great, suggesting a race from Kantharos harbour into military harbour of Zea  More attractive because of ties betweens Athens and Themistokles  Was a raced on a military ship, trireme that had 170-200 oarmen, a captain (trierarchos), boatswain (kelestes)  Size of the crew suggest the 200 free meal prizem and 200 drachma prize  Day 8: Feasting and Partying o Prizes of Olive Oil, Wreaths of Gold and Cash The Asklepeia  For god of healing Asklepios, son of Apollo at Epidauros o Was part of a healing center, where sick would go to get cured by sacred dogs or snakes  Took place 9 days after Ishthmian Gamesm and included a gymnikos agon, mousikos agon but no hippikos o Kithara, aulos, other instruments and rhapsodes and actors o Stadion, pankration, pentathlon Sanctuary, Stadium, Krypte Esodos, and Theatre  Sanctuary was largerly constructed in fourth century BC o Women were allowed in the sanctuary, ½ of recorded cures that survive were female  Thought don’t know if women were aloud to take part in festival The Eleutheria (Freedom)  held in Larissa and open only to Larissans in honor of Zeus  included standard competition for the gymnikos agon, competition for trumpeters and heralds, and literary competition but no musical o also recognized some civic games torch races for boys, apobates, cavalry marksmanship  however these all had individual rather than team winners  Thessaly was famous for horses, but didn’t have any standard horse races o Instead had torch race on horse back Taurotheria (bull hunt)  Rider would chase bull around on horseback until it was tired, and then jump onto the neck of the bull and force its head down until it’s knees buckled Sparta  Largest polis in Greece and well known for its education systems o Which also applied to women and girls more than any other polis o Because of they’re location, Spartans had the leisure and need to develop a strong force from their own citizen body, developing the legendary Spartans of myth.  Spartan arete Karneia  founded 676-673, for Apollo and were the other games besides the Hyakintha  included hippikos and mousikos, gymnikos  they seemed to favour long distance running adding the markos (long distance) and pente dolichos on top of the stadion and diaulos  hoplitodromos was only attested once, and no Spartan has won it Olympia  Pentathlon seemd to be a favourite and won many times by Spartans  A late roman source suggests that Spartans found boxing but later quit it and pankration becayse these contests were decided by one opponent acknowledging defeat, and would give an excuse to her detractors to accuse Sparta of cowardice  Plato says Athenians would bind their hands with himantes so they could have deformed ears like Spartans  There is no evidence that A sparton won any boxing or pankrationsomething  But from the year boxing was added in 688, until the end of 4 century Spartans one 44 times in other events, thus basis on historic fact  idiosyncratic events  had ball game similar to rugby that was identified with the episkyros  even rougher was a competition at the Platanistas (plane-tree grove)  objective was to push opposing team off the island, through any means  Another peculiar contest at Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia, where youths attempted to steal cheese from altar while others whipped him, in Roman period this changed to just withstanding whips longest  Bomonikes (the altar winner)  All of their events where in training for military service, training for war  Tyrtaios “ the skills of the athlete and the skills of the warrior differ, the former are not admirable in a man who lacks the latter  Some suggest that the hoplitodromos was a military aspect in the stephantic games, but lack of fundamental military equipment and lack of team coordination suggests in really just replicates running from war  Differences also come in the subjective judging in chrematitic games Athletics: Training for War?  The first Olympics themselves were 'war games' held in an atmosphere of enforced peace. The Greeks used the Games to prepare themselves for battle. Wendy J.Raschke, a professor at the University of California (Riverside) says, "The Games were an important aspect of a warriors life, an exemplification of his arete (prowess)" Modern Olympics End of Ancient Olympics  AD. 394 Last Recorded Games  Christian Prohibition o All public pagan sites had to be closed, because Olympia was a site that did not represent Christianity  One source says it was a fire in 400s that caused the Polis of Elis to abandon them  Last archaeological evidence comes from 385 and it was the continuation of winners inscribed on a plaque  Rediscovered in 1766; excavated in 1875-81 Pierre De Coubertin  He saw a
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