Comp Sci 1032 review.docx

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Computer Science
Computer Science 1032A/B
Diane Goldstein

Database= Tables or Files + Relationships among rows in tables + Metadata (data that describes data) Database -> DBMS -> Database Application -> User DBMS creates database, processes database, and administers Database = collection of tables, relationships, and metadata DBMS = software program Database Application = a collection of forms, reports, queries, and application programs that process a database Forms are used to read, insert, modify, or delete data Reports show data in a structured context Queries use searches for key words SQL = Structured Query language – international standard for processing database Forms, reports, and queries do standard functions Application programs process logic on a business level (use the internet) Multi User processing is common, but poses the “Lost Update problem” counting wrong inventories. – Some locking must be used to coordinate activities of multiple users DBMS fall into two categories: 1) Enterprise DBMS = process large organizational & workgroup databases (SQL 2) Personal DBMS = designed for smaller, simpler databases (fewer than 100 users) like Access, dBase Data model = description of both the data and the relationships among the data Relational database design = designer creates a table for every entity, key attribute is primary key of table, attributes of entity become columns (fields), tables normalized to a single theme, represent relationships between tables (add foreign key if needed) Entity = something users want to track (like an order) Attributes = describe the entity Identifier = a defining attribute for one entity (like an OrderNumber) ER Diagram = entity relationship diagram Unified modeling language (UML) Cardinality 1:N N:M 1:1 Normalization = process of converting poorly structured tables into two or more well structured tables Data Integrity problems = different names for the same entity, produces incorrect info, resolve by deleting duplicated data Normalized data eliminate data duplication but are slower to process Attributes are stored in fields All the fields containing data about one entity form a record (row) Set of all records makes one file Every table should have a key attribute (primary key) Queries: the result from the search is called a dataset Creating a query = add attributes to query definition form Criteria row: Asterisk = searches for a pattern that includes any number of characters in the position of the asterisk Question Mark: searches for a pattern that includes a single character in the position of the question mark IS NULL = records that have no value IS NOT NULL = excludes Null values ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standard computing language for accessing & manipulating database systems Format: SELECT FROM WHERE Attributes exist in multiple tables so use format: Select data from two tables with the JOIN keyword: SELECT attribute1, attribute2, attribute3 FROM first_table INNER JOIN second_table ON first_table.key = second_table.foreign_key List the students taking COMP SCI 031A in alphabetical order Select STUDENT.NAME From (STUDENT INNER JOIN TAKES ON Where STUDENT.ST_NUM = TAKES.ST_NUM) COURSE.NAME = “COMP SCI” AND INNER JOIN COURSE ON COURSE.NUMBER = “031” AND COURSE.TERM = “A” Order by STUDENT.NAME Asc Four types of table updates: Update: Changes multiple records Append: Adds records from one table to another Delete: deletes records that meet a criteria Make-table: Create a new table from existing records 7) Competitive strategies: enhance the product or enhance the business Calculation systems = antiquated systems, relieve workers of repetitive calculations (like payroll) Functional systems = performs work of a single department (like HR) Functional silos: Systems designed to work independently of one another In reality, functional systems are inter-related (purchasing influences inventory, which influences customer satisfaction, which influences HR, etc.) Sometimes called cross-departmental or cross-functional. Product management is the primary functional system for marketing. Sales information systems: plan production, manage inventory Operations systems: used by non-manufacturers, such as retailers. Concerns Order Entry, Order Management, Finished-good inventory, and Customer Service Manufacturing information systems support the transformation of materials into products. Process data about inventories. Push production planning: organization creates schedule and pushes goods through manufacturing and sales. Pull production planning: responds to consumer demand, reduction in inventory triggers production. Human Resource Information Systems concern: 1) Recruiting, 2) Compensation, 3) Assessment, 4) Planning, 5) Development and Training Accounting Systems: General ledger, financial reporting, accounts receivable, cost accounting, accounts payable, cash management, budgeting, and treasury management. Importance of legislation Enacted to prevent fraud – Bill 198 Functional systems have many benefits, but are limited in their info and may create duplicates. “Paving the cowpath” – make efficient what already exists Challenges of Business Redesign (improving business processes) – expensive and takes time, employees resist change. By 1990 businesses had built in industry standard processes Interorganizational Systems = systems used by two or more related companies Cross-functional systems – designed to overcome problems in functional systems: 2 different types: 1) Customer Relationship management systems (CRM): supports the business processes of attracting, selling, managing, delivering, and supporting customers. Has four phases of the customer life cycle: marketing, customer acquisition, relationship management, and loss/churn. Single repository for customer data. CRM Components: Solicitation (generate prospects via messages to target markets), Relationship Management (maximize the value of the existing customer base), and Lead Tracking (track sales leads and customer responses) 2) Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (ERP): supports many or all of the primary business processes as well as the human resource and accounting support processes. Enterprise-wide, cross-departmental, used by manufacturing companies Integrates sales, orders, inventory, manufacturing, and cs. Provides software, pre-designed databases, procedures and job descriptions ERP Characteristics 1) Cross-functional 2) Has a formal approach based on formal business models 3) Data in a centralized database 4) Large benefits but is difficult and can be slow 5) VERY expensive ERP Potential Benefits: 1) Efficient business processes 2) Inventory reduction 3) Lead-time reduction 4) Improved customer service 5) Real time insight into organization 6) Higher profitability Enterprise Application Systems (EAI) solves problems of isolated systems. E-commerce and Web 2.0 Systems working across organizations -involve selling and purchasing -integrate multiple-company operations Interoganizational Systems Provides a comp. advantage to both parties 2 types of interorganiztional systems: 1) E-commerce, 2) Supply Chain Management (SCM) Web 2.0 = describes applications and platforms on the web. Established by Tim Reilly. Focuses n providing services. Recognizes the user as a part of the system. Flickr. E-commerce = the buying and selling of goods and services over public and private computer networks. 2 Types: 1) Merchant (sell their own goods/services) - Three types - B2C (business to consumer) from retailer to a customer - B2B (business to business) sales between companies - B2G (business to government) sales between governmental organizations) and 2) Nonmerchant (sell services of others and arrange sale of goods) - 2 Types: - E-Commerce Auctions (online auctions) - Clearinghouses/Electronic Exchanges (matches buyers and sellers) Benefits of E-Commerce: Disintermediation, More efficient, easy to compare prices online, price elasticity, etc. Economic Factors: Industry/channel- conflict, price – conflict, logistics – expensive. Supply Chain Management (SCM) Network of organizations and facilities that transforms raw materials into products delivered to customers. There main factors are SRM (supplier Relationship Management), Inventory, and Customer Relationship Management. Integrates primary inbound logistics business activity. (Transportation to companies to warehouses to inventories). Supplier relationship Management is a business process for managing all contacts between an organization and its suppliers. Summary: 1) Source (find vendors, negotiate,), 2) purchase (request quotes, create an order, and 3) Settle (receive good, pay) Benefits of IS on Supply Chain Performance: Reduced cost, quicker, fixes bullwhip effect. Bullwhip effect- fluctuations in inventories due to time and size of orders, not due to demand. 8) Challenges of Making decisions – Three Causes Storage capacity has increased; price has decreased; basically unlimited today. 1) Uncertainty and Complexity 2) Information Overload: Manager’s have too much info and are overloaded. Ability to store any size customer data. Can be used for forecasting. Business manager’s challenge is to find appropriate data and use for decisions. 403 Petabytes is roughly the amount of all the printed material ever written. 3) Data Quality: Processed data from operational systems can be used for basic reports, but raw data is unsuitable for sophisticated reports. - Dirty Data (data that doesn’t make sense) - Missing values - Inconsistent data - Wrong granularity (degree of summarization: coarse = high, fine = precise) - Clickstream data (customers clicking habits) OTLP – Support for decision Making Online Transaction Processing (OTLP) system - Collects data electronically, backbone of all functional/cross-functional systems - Supports decision making Transaction processing - Real-Time processing  immediate processing - Batch processing  Waits until it has a batch of transactions before processing Data Resource Challenge While data may be collected, it may not used to improve decisions. Decision Support System (DSS) or Online Analytic Processing (OLAP) are systems that focus on making OLTP-collected data useful for decision making. Able to do arithmetic operations on groups of data. Business Intelligence Systems (BI) – provide info for improving decision- making; includes: 1) Reporting Systems: data from multiple sources, process data (sort, group, sum, avg), results put into reports, provide info at the right time 2) Data-Mining Systems: Process data using statistical techniques to find relationships and patterns in data Look for patterns and relationships to anticipate events or predict outcomes -Predict donations Unsupervised Data Mining – run before model created; hypotheses created after analysis to explain results (like cluster analysis) Supervised data Mining – model developed before analysis like: - Regression analysis: measures impact of a set of variables on separate variable - Neural Networks: Predicts values; makes classifications (good/bad customers) - -Market basket analysis: computes correlations of items on past orders to determine items that are frequently purchased together. Confidence: probability of purchasing two items Lift: ratio of confidence to the base probability of buying am item 3) Knowledge Management Systems (KM): creates value from intellectual capital (collect and share human knowledge). Supported by 5 components of an IS. 4) Expert Systems: encode human knowledge gathered from
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