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Computer Science
Computer Science 1032A/B
Diane Goldstein

CHAPTER 5 DATABASE AND CONTENT MANAGEMENT Intellectual property: A form of creative endeavor that can be protected through a trademark, patent, copyright, industrial design, or integrated circuit topography. Web content management system (CMS): An employee accesses this to place content on the companys website. Database: A self-describing collection of integrated records. Byte: Character of data. Columns (fields): Bytes are grouped into columns. Rows (records): Columns/fields are grouped into rows. Table (file): A group of similar rows/records is called a table. Key: A column or group of columns that identifies a unique row in a table. Foreign keys: The keys of a different foreign table from which they reside. Relational data: Databases that carry their data in the form of tables and that represent relationships using foreign keys. Metadata: Data that describe data. Database management system (DBMS): A program used to create, process, and administer a database. Most companies license these from vendors. Products: o DB2 from IBM o Access and SQL Server from Microsoft o Oracle from Oracle Corp. o MySQL: An open-source DBMS product that is free for most applications. Functions of the DBMS: Creating the database and its structures Processing the database Administering the database 1 Applications use the DBMS to read, insert, modify or delete date. Structured Query Language (SQL): An international standard language for processing a database. A formal way of asking a question to a database. Database application: A collection of forms, reports, queries, and application programs that process a database. Lost-update problem: Can occur when there is multi-user processing. Enterprise DBMS products: Process large organizational and workgroup databases. These products support many users and many different database applications. Personal DBMS products: Designed for smaller, simpler database applications. Only remaining personal DBMS is Access. APPLICATION EXTENSION 5A: DATABASE DESIGN Data model: Contains a description of both the data and the relationship among the data. Like a blueprint. Entity-relationship (E-R) data model: Developers describe the content of a database by defining things (entities) that will be stored in the database and the relationships among those entities. Entity: Something that the user wants to track. Attribute: Describes characteristics of an entity. Identifier: An attribute or group of attributes whose value is associated with one and only one entity instance. Relationships: Among entities. One-to-many: (1:N) Many-to-many: (N:M) Maximum cardinality: The maximum number of entities that can be involved in a relationship. Ex: 1:N, N:M, and 1:1. 2 Minimum cardinalities: Constraints on minimum requirements. Normalization: The process of converting poorly structured tables into two or more well- structured tables. Data integrity problem: Rows indicate conflicting information. CHAPTER 7: INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Three categories of IS: 1. Calculation systems: Purpose was to relieve workers of tedious, repetitive calculations. 2. Functional systems: Facilitated the work of a single department or business function. Sometimes called functional silos. 3. Integrated cross-functional systems Inter-organizational systems: Used by two or more related companies. Ex: e-commerce. Types of functional systems: Marketing and sales systems Operations systems: Used by non-manufacturers, such as distributors and retailers. o Order entry, order management, inventory management, customer service Manufacturing systems: Support the transformation of materials intro products. o Push production planning: Create a production plan and push goods through manufacturing and sales. o Pull production planning: Responds to customer demand. Human resources systems Accounting functional systems: Support all of the organizations accounting activities. Business process design: The idea is that organizations should not simply automate or improve existing functional systems. Industry standard processes: The processes for using the software are built in. Customer relationship management (CRM) systems: Support the business processes of attracting, selling, managing, delivering, and supporting customers. Customer life cycle: marketing, customer acquisition, relationship management, and loss/churn. 3 Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems: Support many or all of the primary business processes as well as the human resource and accounting support processes. ERP is an outgrowth of materials resource planning, and is used primarily by manufacturing companies. Potential benefits: Efficient business processes Inventory reduction Lead-time reduction Improved customer service Greater, real-time insight into organization Higher profitability Process blueprint: A comprehensive set of inherent processes for all organized activities. E-commerce: The buying and selling of goods and services over public and private computer networks. Web 2.0: Applications and platforms on the web. E-commerce categories Merchant companies: Those that take title to the goods they sell. They buy goods and resell them. Business-to-consumer (B2C): Sales between a supplier and a consumer. Business-to-business (B2B): Sales between companies Business-to-government (B2G): Sales between companies and government. Non-merchant companies: Those that arrange for the purchase and sale of goods without ever owning or taking title to those goods. E-commerce auctions, ex: Ebay. Clearinghouses: Provide goods and services at a state price and arrange for the delivery of the goods, but never take title. Ex: Amazon.com. o Electronic exchanges Disintermediation: The elimination of middle layers in the supply chain. Price elasticity: The amount that demand rises or falls with changes in price. Supply chain management (SCM) systems: Inter-organizational systems that enable companies 4
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