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# Atmpospheric Processes 3 notes.pdf

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School
Western University
Department
Geography
Course
Geography 1100
Professor
D.Kim Holland
Semester
Fall

Description
Last  Week:  Part  2:  The  Nature  of  inputs  and  outputs  of  energy Talked  about  energy,  its  production,  and  transmission -­‐ shortwave  from  the  sun -­‐ longwave  form  the  earth -­‐ blackbody  radiation  curves -­‐ the  role  of  the  atmosphere  and  earth’s  energy  receipt the  heat  balance  –  sensible  and  latent  heat Atmospheric  Processes Adiabatic  Processes -­‐ Adiabatic  changes  in  temperature  occur  due  to  changes  in  pressure  of  a  gas   while  not  adding  or  subtracting  any  heat -­‐ Pressure,  volume,  and  temperature  of  a  gas  are  all  related  to  each  other  (PV/ T  =  K) Vertical  Air  Movement -­‐ Environmental  Lapse  Rate  –ELR o Stationary  column  of  air o Air  temperature  as  we  move  away  from  the  ground o General  warm  near  surface  and  declining  with  altitude o Rate  (on  average)  6.4  degrees  Celsius  /  1000  meters  in  troposphere   o NOT  constant o Inversion:  opposite  –  warming  temperature  with  increase  in  altitude Moving  Air -­‐ Will  cool  at  the  Dry  Adiabatic  Lapse  Rate  –  DALR o Gas  laws  PV/T  =  K  (constant) o Rate  is  10  degrees  Celsius  per  1000  meters  (actual  9.8  degrees  Celsius   per  1000  meters) o Air  is  dry  –  not  saturated -­‐ If  Condensation  occurs  i.e.  air  is  saturated o Air  will  cool  at  the  Saturated  Adiabatic  Lapse  Rate  –  SALR o It  is  also  called  MAR  (moist  adiabatic  rate) o Rate  is  variable  but  less  than  DALR  (less  than  10  degrees  Celsius/ 1000  meters) o Depends  on  temperature SALR -­‐ In  a  saturated  air  parcel,  latent  heat  of  condensation  is  liberated  as  sensible   heat,  which  reduces  the  adiabatic  rate  of  cooling -­‐ The  release  of  latent  heat  may  vary,  which  affects  the  SALR.    The  SALR  is   much  lower  than  the  DALR  in  warm  air,  whereas  the  two  rates  are  more   similar  in  cold  air Humidity   -­‐ Absolute  humidity o The  amount  of  water  vapour  (kg)  in  a  mass  of  air  (kg)  or  volume   (cubic  meters)  of  air -­‐ Relative  humidity o Is  de▯ined  as  the  ratio  of  the  partial  pressure  of  water  vapour  in  a   parcel  of  air,  to  the  saturated  vapour  pressure  of  water  vapour  at  a   given  temperature -­‐ The  capacity  of  air  to  hold  water  is  related  to  the  temperature  of  the  air,   because  the  vapour  pressure  increases  with  air  temperature -­‐ Relative  humidity  is  not  a  direct  measurement  of  water  vapour;  rather  it  is   e
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