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History 1401E- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 68 pages long!)


Department
History
Course Code
HIS 1401E
Professor
Pierre Reynard
Study Guide
Final

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Western
History 1401E
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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History Lecture #2: The European Dynastic Order Sept 16
I) Forms of states
a) The European Map
b) Dynasties
c) Absolutism or absolutism
(II) Affairs of State: The Concerns of Governments
a) International Relations
b) Police and Justice
c) Fiscal Systems
d) Administrative Capabilities
I) European Maps:
-Roman empire is Mediterranean entity not so much European entity.
-Physical map of Europe shows us that it is small; geography of Europe makes it a
very open and fractured space.
-Deeply penetrated by water, the sea is about 300km from anywhere in Europe.
-Open to the movement of population, ideas, and armies
-Have small social or cultural pockets
-Never fully protected from major invasions
-Map of Europe is particularly diverse, many different languages
-Diversity itself is an engine of European history (competitive environment,
different groups have different ideas, endless conflict, great range of intellectual
currents).
-Any European map will make very clear of the great diversity of the shapes of
European states.
-Middle of map= many very small states (Germany to Italy).
States/Dynasties:
-A monarch ruled most European states; most of them were men (reflection of
society at that time)
-Most of these rulers ruled very desperate areas, and accumulate more territories if
possible
-Organizing principle is not nationalism, religious allegiance or language. It is about
the Dynasty.
-Fundamental transformations: rise of nationalism, emergence of nation states.
Absolutism:
-Form of power that can be characteristic of the early modern age, concept of
monarchies and absolute power
-Most monarchs lived without being limited by the parliament or without being
checked by a constitution
-Power was concentrated in their hands, enforced the decisions.
-Legislative, judicial and executive power was concentrated to this ruler.
-Commoners believed the power of the king came from godly vision
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-Real element of power was force
-Time spent debating other types of justification, why is it this monarch rules this
land?
-Limits to absolute power:
-Religion, king had to appear or function within the limits of religion (compatible
with religion, religious standards).
-Tradition, royal power had to remain what it had always been (stay within bounds
of tradition).
-Social order/pyramid, a good monarch tried not to upset the social order or
disrupt the social structure of society.
-Practical limits, rulers could edit a new law, technological, army and
transportation.
II) International Relations:
-Maintain order within the state, stable meaningful frame of life
-Miniscule police forces, would use army if issue got big enough
Police and Justice:
Judicial systems were complex corrupt but most parts of Europe had a functioning
judicial system
Fiscal System:
-Any state need money, most states wanted more money
-Very few things that they bothered with, health, school
-Start to think about expanding their role in society
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