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History 2201E Midterm Notes.docx

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Department
History
Course
History 2201E
Professor
Wardhoff
Semester
Winter

Description
PreContact North America September 14 OutlineHistory vs the pastBeringiaLake AgassizPaleoindiansClovis New Mexico Monte Verde ChileNaDeneMegafauna extinction 1534 Cartier makes first contact with first nations in the St Lawrence regiontheories of migrationWhen and how did people first come into the western hemisphere Bering Strait Theory10 000 BC theory that people crossed a land bridge during the last ice agecreation of glaciers dropped ice levels creating the bridge over which people migrated by footat the end of the ice age water levels rose cutting off contact between Asia and the Americastheory that mankind emerged in Africa and migrated across the worldwe still dont know for sure still discovering evidence of early man Chile Perubones dont preserve as well in western hemisphere may effect findingssome claim people first arrived on this continent as many as 50 000 years ago though the Bering strait theory is the most widely acceptedarchaeological evidence of oldest civilization being found in South America How is this possibleargument states that there was an ice free route that brought migrants down the coast to south America they would have followed the resources aka animalsafter the ice age ends the people begin to move back up into North America resulting in the Arctic regions populated last Ocean TheorySome argue that people arrived via the sea toLacks validity because of the issue of technology in1534 it took two months to cross the Atlantic the likelihood of anyone traveling from Asia to South America is unlikelyBoth theories could possibly be correct easier to believe they came form the Pacific because the Atlantic is more difficult to sail wind moves west to east makes trip much easierThere have been animals and plants found in the Americas that are known to be native to AsiaMany first nations groups believe that they originated in North America disagree with other theories because it delegitimizes their claims to the land and heritage challenges what they have been taught for generationsThe Classification of First Nations First Nations In national terms o Mikmaq Iroquois Huron Algonkin Odawa Ojibwa Dakota Cree Blackfoot Haida Dene Inuit etc o Pros group of people acting together as a political unit not a nation state though with distinct borders etc o Cons First Nations bonds within political units not very strong also end up with too many potential nations to rememberIn linguistic terms o Algonquian Iroquoian Salish etc o Examining language base shows trade routes migration etc traditional categorization scheme used by anthropologists o West areas are more complex culturally and linguistically because that was the point of origin for the spread across America more time to diversify also had plentiful resources no need to move and follow resources o Pros have to learn language to study a people anthropologists o Cons links groups that have little in common except language ex North American Dene includes Dene and Navajo 11 language groups 50 distinct languages in CanadaIn cultural terms o Northwest Coastal Plateau Plains Northeast Eastern Woodlands Subarctic Arctic o Pros classifies according to way of life since this is dependent on environmentalgeographic factors separate neatly into geographic areas leaves us with 6 manageable groups o Cons blurs the linguistic and political boundaries that tell us a lotDangerous to make generalizations when it comes to the First Nations they have developed very different cultures economies religions and political systemsThis is why it has been difficult for the first nations to be organize politicallyVery intricate trade routes all across the Western Hemisphere when Europeans arrived this contributed to the rapid spread of disease as natives began dying before ever encountering Europeans 1000 AD Vikings first true Europeans to reach North America
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