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Department
History
Course
History 2125F/G
Professor
Peter Krats
Semester
Fall

Description
2125 Exam Notes 1 COLONIAL STAPLES _ • Definition: A principal raw material or commodity grown or produced in a region. • Timber is a very important staple: Britain needs our timber to produce ships. o Square timber = huge pieces of timber. o Timber is the first Canadian industry to come inland. o Timber worked in winter: snow made it easier to transport. o Required skills to cut down trees, these people called tree fellers.  Other skill: teamsters to make routes, deal with horses. o Square timber becomes DOMINANT EXPORT of BNA from 1790s to 1860s. o Timber required the production of many ships to transport: we made biggest ships in the world like Marco Polo and Blue Nose. • Maritimes: wind water wood works well. Most prosperous area, crucial to staples economy. LABOR RELATIONS _ • Employers move from paternalism  deskilling and depersonalization. • Bigger works = depersonalization. • Many people do simple, repetitive work. • Combination Act: can’t openly complain about work. • Master Servant Act: complete control over people. • Railway employers survive, they have skills and status. CONTINUITY CHANGE _ • GOVERNMENT ROLE _ • Mercantilism: ruled by England, who favor the English speakers. o Regional economies. • Attitudes toward labor: unions are illegal. • Gov. protects property. • Encouraged infrastructure, road development. • Railways, communications: mail. • Built canals, because business people said they would lose their business to NY. o Wasn’t big enough, gov. made it bigger. • Lesson: go to gov. for infrastructure. • Army bills introduced, led people to believe that gov.-backed $ system could work. • Bank of New Brunswick was first bank to be given gov. approval. • Soon, gov. became involved in making money. 2125 Exam Notes 2 • 19 century: government helps out a lot. o Reciprocity Treaty of 1854 o Money for railway development  Guarantee Act  Municipal Loan Fund Act BUSINESS ADJUSTMENTS _ • English speakers are favored after conquest, so French speakers… o Wanted to prove they were smart. o Began growing more wheat but couldn’t compete with USA. So they sold wheat in the local market. • First large employer: Red Path • York becomes Toronto. • Began using canals, steamboats, to transport instead of roads. • Free trade (FT) was in discussion. Was not a new idea. • Begin selling more locally and to USA: requires new infrastructure. o BNA people not happy, burn down parliament building in Montreal. • We have big boats and fish, sell this! • Capital cities benefit the most. INTERNATIONAL INFLUENCES _ • Mercantilist system inherited from Brits. • Timber and other staples shipped to England. • Trade relationship with USA. • Our infrastructure was geared toward England, so we had to restructure this when we began trading with USA and locally. • Reciprocity Treaty of 1854 with USA  this was advantageous to BNA. • USA is competition for Canadian businesses. ORGANIZED LABOR / HISTORY AND DIVISIONS _ • No unions at this time. NATIONAL POLICY STAPLES _ • New staples introduced: mining (nickel and other minerals), pulp and paper, hydro. o Require new technology. LABOR RELATIONS _ 2125 Exam Notes 3 • Most jobs paid very badly, were dangerous, expensive, etc. o People working these jobs often lived in slums. • 30 times as many work fatalities as today. • Overly long shifts. • All leads to beginning of unions. CONTINUITY CHANGE _ • Change: we’re a country, no longer colonies. • Continuity: we’re still doing staples. GOVERNMENT ROLE _ • Independence 1867. • Two levels of gov. emerge: provincial and federal. • Federal gov. will now issue money. • Took people’s land to expand Canada. • Built Intercolonial railway to Maritimes so they would not leave Canada. • Lends a tax break to construction of CPR (1885). o CPR gives Macdonald a lot of credit. o Future governments all want to build railroads! • Gov. goes into debt from all the railway construction. • Much advertising in Europe to increase immigration to prairies. • Explosion westward due to railways, gov. and enticing farmers. • Economy has big expansion during this time, but country is basically a colony to serve Montreal and Toronto. • Allows business to do whatever, such as price fix. Gov. well aware of slums but sides with business. BUSINESS ADJUSTMENTS _ • Many big mergers, 40 companies become 2. • The idea to control chain from RM to FG. • Department stores become huge. • “An era of less making more.” • Corporations have same rights as citizens, took advantage of this. • Taylorism comes into play. • Belief that exploiting the worker was necessary. • Had to adjust to beginning of unions. INTERNATIONAL INFLUENCES _ • European immigrants arrive, Canada becomes more multicultural. 2125 Exam Notes 4 • Tariffs are imposed on USA so our economy grows. • American Federation of Labor ORGANIZED LABOR / HISTORY AND DIVISIONS _ • Gov. says unions are no longer illegal because of Trade Unions Act. • Organized labor is very angry at NP (see elephant cartoon) o Mostly because of horrible conditions/pay for workers. • Many businesses threatened to fire anyone involved with unions. • Union for USA: Terence Powderly and Knights of Labor led many marches. o Inspiration for Canadian unions, many are regional. • Business hates the IWW (Industrial Workers of the World) union (Wobblies). WAR TO WAR STAPLES _ • WWI: Staples were the dominant player in the war enterprise (metals, wood). o Manufacturing was significant. Mining for metals. o Joseph Flavelle responsible for coordination of war materials. • Our pulp mills become most efficient in the world. • West coast forest becomes accessible with new machines. • WW II: Manufacturing boom = natural resource boom. LABOR RELATIONS _ • During WWI, it was safer to be in a union because businesses were hesitant to fire. • Winnipeg Strike leads to over 400 supporting strikes. • Bloody Saturday: strike broken up by Mounties. o Most significant event in Canadian labor relations! • All the angry people join new union: OBU (One Big Union). o But then membership declines, people can’t afford to be in unions and lose their jobs. • GD: much union activity. • WWII: business and labor expected to do their part. • Labor laws arise: say that companies can no longer refuse to acknowledge unions. Unions stuck with grievance. • PC 1003 CONTINUITY CHANGE _ • WWI  Great Depression  WWII 2125 Exam Notes 5 GOVERNMENT ROLE _ • Gain much power through War Measures Act. • Federal taxation becomes standard, needed to pay for all our spending. • Encouraged people to buy victory bonds. • Encouraged people to keep enlisting to fight. • In much debt. • GD: boondoddling projects so that gov. isn’t unemploying people. • Gov. increases tariffs to support econ. • Many think gov. should play bigger role in economy, that laissez-faire doesn’t work. o Towards Keynesianism. • WWII: all about winning. Until 1940, we were the #2 ally. • Crown corporations emerge. • Good debt, helps us win the war. • Gov. increases personal and business taxes, although businesses will make those back. • Buy victory bonds! And when the wars over, start consuming again! BUSINESS ADJUSTMENTS _ • At beginning of WWI, some business increase production and others lessen it = uncertainty. • Had to adjust to making less profits: it’s a war, must sacrifice this. • GD: people incredibly suspicious of the private sector. • WWII: it’s not about making money, it’s about winning. Business better help, or else. o Ex: Ford makes tanks instead of cars. • Gov. increases personal and business taxes, although businesses will make those back. INTERNATIONAL INFLUENCES _ • WWI: we had to fight, Britain said so. • GD: we rely heavily on USA, our economy is linked to theirs. • WWII: Before 1940, we were the #2 ally. ORGANIZED LABOR / HISTORY AND DIVISIONS _ • WWI: Radicals in Winnipeg  Winnipeg General Strike Committee. o Bloody Saturday. o Leads to many more supporting strikes and OBU. o Many people leave OBU. • WWII: Labor laws finally arise when gov. interferes. • PC 1003 • Industrial Relations and Disputes Investigation Act. • New concept: automatic checkoff  when
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