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Kinesiology 1080A/B
Matthew Heath

2014-02-03 8:30 AM Topic 1: Science and the Scientific Method Science: Knowledge about, or study of, the natural world based on facts learned through experiments and observation (Webster’s dictionary) • Science is a PROCESS (checklist) A Science Checklist a. Focuses on aims to explain aspects of the natural world b. Uses testable ideas c. Relies on evidence d. Leads to other research (doesn’t always have to too) e. It (ideally) has no bias Benefits and outcomes: what has come about after explorations Exploration and Discovery: need to pay attention to scientific policy Community analysis and feedback: peer review The Scientific Method 1. Come up with a specific question (pertains to the natural world) 2. Background research 3. Formulate a hypothesis (best educated guess to explain question w/ available current knowledge) 4. Run an “experiment” to test your hypothesis 5. Interpret the results What is an Experiment? • Tool for determining nature of a relationship between variables or how one variable directly influences another • Confirm or disconfirm hypothesis • Manipulate and observe the effects of a variable on another variable 1. Independent variables o The variable that changes to explain differences in the dependent variable 2. Dependent variables o Variable of interest o The outcome measure Experimental Example Someone tells I.O.C president that people react faster to a “go light” instead of a shot gun because light travels faster than sound Research Evaluation • What is the hypothesis? • What are the independent variables? • What are the dependent variables? • How doe the variables relate to the concepts of interest? • Does the data support the interpretations/conclusions? Cycling vs. Running example Independent Variables? ▯ Type of exercise (running vs. cycling) ▯ Time of measurements (pre, post, 1h, 14h, 38h) Dependent Variables? ▯ CK, MYO, CRP, DOMS How does the variables relate to the concepts of interest? ▯ The more your muscles are damaged the more effective your workout was Scientific Method and Basketball Analytics ▯ predicting the outcomes of games (heart of analytics is scientific method) Research Question: • Why is the Raptors offence better without Rudy Gay? Background Research: • What makes a good offence? • Where does Rudy Gay take most of his shots from? Hypothesis: • Rudy Gay takes a high % of shots w/ low expected value • The Raptors offence improved b/c they are now taking more good shots than bad shots Independent Variable: • Raptors with and without Rudy Gay Dependent Variable: • Areas of the court the Raptors as a team shoot from Conclusion: • The raptors offence is better b/c Rudy Gay is no longer around to take a bunch of terribly low value shots Exam: take an abstract from pubmed under “Human Movement Neuroscience” and he will ask what are the dependent variables, ect. Topic 2: The Nervous System Continued Spatial numerical association of response codes (SNARC effect): 12345678910 • Internal representation of a mental number line (ruler – left to right in order) • Something learned in environment • Iran – write from right to left, kanji – up down • People who are analytical have strong SPARC • Artistic people have creative representation • Right brain dominant (spatial) Press button and point to left or right (1, 2, 8, 9) • Congruent 1, 2 left, 8, 9, right – shorter reaction time • Incongruent 1, 2 right, 8, 9, left – faster reaction time • Internal rep of internal number line • Reaction times are shorter when the stimulus cueing the response is congruent to the internal mental number line • Understand how external environment influences us • Influence: Provides framework to design and to understand numbers Early Split- Brain Research (Monkey) – Michael Gazzaniga Interview – Nobel Prize • Corpus callosum – connects hemispheres – responsible for seizures with people with epilepsy • Left is focal area • Split brain – cut connection of corpus callosum • All activities controlled by 2 half brains • Double nature throughout the whole body • Hemispheres can operate separately • Corpus callosum: 2 million neurofibers • Optic nerves cross – optic chiasm (cut) • Tests one half of the brain without the other half o Retrieving food with only sense of touch o Switches action to left hand and then to eyes ▯ Result: 2 halves can operate separately ▯ No transfer of info between the 2 hemispheres ▯ Left brain cannot pass knowledge to right brain ▯ Hemispheres have separate memories Human patient • Surgeon cut corpus callosum to reduce severity of epilepsy • Optic chiasm not severed • Transmission of info between hemispheres was halted • Flash a word of picture falls to left and that info goes to disconnected right half and patient is unable to say word – but left hand can draw it • Mind is made of independent agents that carry on activities outside of conscious awareness • Info from right has direct access and connection to left (speech perception/production) • Image to left has only access to right hemisphere – cannot get to speech production o Relies on visuospatial skills – uses drawn image to say the word o Inability to say out loud the image presented to his left • Unable to lie Pyramidal tract: cortical spinal tract (pyramids): major descending pathways from brain to spinal cord (huge- 1 million neurons) – allows for us to do sophisticated things • 2 major subdivisions – neurons that interface directly or indirectly with alpha motor neurons (contraction) o Direct = Monosynaptic connection (one synapse) o Indirect: mediated by interneuron (find at same level in spinal cord as alpha motor neuron it would interface and makes connection within segments) • Propriospinal neuron (different levels in spinal cord and makes connection between segments) • 2 subdivisions are: o Cortical bulbar tract o Cortical spinal tract Corticobulbar Tract • CC modulates action of motor neurons in brain stem and spinal cord ▯ corticobulbar tract • Motor neuron activity organized by cerebral cortex • Fibers extend from the motor cortex to the “bulb” • Cortical facial musculature and muscles of mastication (chewing) • Upper and lower motor neurons • These fibers do not go into the paramital path but we will refer to it as a paramital path • Red ▯ an upper motor neuron • Green ▯ lower/alpha/gamma (stretch) motor neuron o Upper synapse with lower o Can send excitatory or inhibiting signal to gamma motor neurons • Facial nucleus is divided into rostral (innervates forehead) and caudal (innervates mouth) parts • Rostral part innervated bilaterally (left and right of face) • Caudal part innervated contralaterally (only one side of face) • Upper vs. lower motor neuron lesion: o Upper motor neuron lesion ▯ contralateral connections (lower face region) are not working but bilateral connections will work o Lower motor neuron lesion ▯ complete paralysis of one side of face (cant send signals contralaterally or bilaterally to that side) Ventral corticospinal Tract • Sends axons INTO the spinal cord (usually only go to the bulb of the brain) • Originate from M1 • Descend “uncrossed” in ventral columns of the spinal cord, forming ventral corticospinal tract (don’t cross over) • Highly myelinated • Innervates axial musculature** ▯ indirectly via propriospinal neurons o Allows coordinated movement (ex. bending at hips) its facilitated by propriospinal neurons and fire some alpha and gamma motor neurons to allow for coordinative movement between muscle groups Lateral Corticospinal Tract • Originate from M1 (majority in hand and arm representation) • 75% of fibers cross at pyramidal decussation (in brain stem) 25% are epsilateral • Monosynaptic connections with alpha/gamma motor neurons** (unlike ventral which synapses with intrafusal neurons) o Allows an individual neuron to have direct control of alpha motor neuron which allows for independent muscle (digit) control o 1:1 ratio ▯ Innervates distal musculature (in particular muscles of the hands)- does it via monosynaptic connections allowing for individual control ( ex. holding pen, all fingers are controlled separated) • Goal-directed actions ▯ allows for fine motor control (digit control) • LESION: o Left Hand lesion ▯ Can still move right limb but cannot do a precision grip (independent movement of digits) • Rats vs Humans o Rats use power grip were human uses precision grip ▯ Due to our monosynaptic connections Difference between Ventral and Lateral Corticospinal Tracts 1. Lateral CT connects with (ie. synapses) a motor neuron 2. Ventral corticospinal tract connects to propriospinal neurons between segments which ultimately synapse with motor neurons o Propriospinal neurons allows coordination between multiple motor neurons (does not have direct connections with alpha motor neurons where ventral does) ▯ polysynaptic connections Lesions to Lateral Cortical Spinal Tract • Impairs fine coordination of individual fingers • Persons with stroke often have difficulty performing daily living activities such as buttoning a shirt ▯ can only make a fist when manipulating objects • No monosynaptic connections prevent fine precision movement Video: Condition called Synesthesia • 5 senses are blended together o hear colours, see sounds or taste a touch • Theories: a. Increased wiring b. In synesthetic brain the inhibition b/w sensory neurons is not working so they can communicate with each other Important Terms Innervation- Distribution of nerves to a part of the body (synapse w/ synapse or synapse w/ muscle fiber) Innervation Ratio – The number of muscle fibers innervates by a single alpha or gamma motor neuron can be very few to over 1000) ▯ Lower innervation ratio = precise movement Extrafusal Fibers- Power producing muscle fibers; external with respect to muscle spindles (run parallel) ▯ produce movement Intrafusal Fibers- Muscle fibers inside of the muscle spindles; innervated by a special system of fusimotor neurons (gamma neurons) (run parallel to extrafusal) ▯ deep in muscle ▯ Important for feedback control ▯ especially stretch ▯ Sends this info to the brainstem and then a response is sent back to the muscle ▯ Low threat to posture ▯ low innervation of gamma motor neurons Motor Neurons and Motor Units Alpha Motor Neuron • Alpha motor neurons are much larger then Y- motor neurons (gamma) and is heavily myelinated ▯ fast AP’s • The larger they are the faster they are (alpha motor neurons can transfer info much faster) • Number of neuron fibers associated with a motor unit ranges from 10 (eye) to 1000’s (back musculature) o Eyes have lower innervation ratio because an eye is much more precise (eye has lower innervation ratio) Alpha motor neuron – A neuron innervating power-producing (extrafusal muscle fiber) Motor unit – Alpha motor neuron and all muscles it innervates; a unit of force production in skeletal muscle individual Motor neuron pool – Contains many alpha/gamma motor neurons and all the muscle fibers they innervate (all the alpha/gamma motor neurons of the biceps) • Leaves via the ventral root ganglion • Sensory info gets back into the nervous system via the dorsal root ganglion • Golgi tendon organ ▯ senses tension/force being produced in the muscle (used to protect the muscle from tares) Fusi-Motor Neurons • Smaller motor neurons innervating intrafusal fibers and changing sensitivity of muscle response to dynamic and static stretch • Intrafusal fibers orientated in parallel with extrafusal fibers • Polar connections between intrafusal and extrafusal fibers • Tell intrafusal muscle fibers how rigid or relaxed they should be Peripheral neuropathies - pathways back to CNS become impaired but they still have alpha and gamma motor neurons (don’t know where their body parts are without actually looking at them) Motor Unit Types 1. Fast twitch, fatigable (FF) (Fast Motor Unit) • Characterized by highest conduction velocity (100m/s) • Largest muscle diameter • Innervate fast twitch muscle fibers 2. Fast twitch; fatigue resistant (FR) • Characterized by medium conduction velocity (60m/s) • Medium fiber diameter (the size determines the speed of conduction) • Innervate fast and/or slow twitch muscle fibers 3. Slow twitch fatigue resistant (SR) (slow motor unit) • Characterized by slow conduction velocity (40m/s) • Small fiber diameter • Innervate slow twitch muscle fibers Motor Unit and Muscle Fiber Types in Athletes 1. Sprinter: 80% fast and 20% slow motor units 2. Marathoner: 20% fast and 80% slow motor units 3. Average person: 50% and 50% 4. Couch potato 60% fast and 40% slow 5. Spinal injury 96% fast and 4% slow (mechanism that allows for motor unit types to change and the muscle fibers it innervates to change) they are not performing long duration movement so they have lots of fast twitch muscle fibers - can training alter motor unit and muscle fiber types ? yes, they are trainable Aside: CONCUSSIONS 1. CDC estimates btw 50 000 and 300 000 concussions in sport/yr 2. Two forms of sport concussion: a. Simple – Limit players participation during symptomatic period but no intervention required during the recovery period- athlete typically returns to play without further problems b. Complex – Continued symptoms during recovery period (usually associated with episode of loss of consciousness) 3. In NCAA football an athlete with previous concussion is 5.8 times more likely to sustain multiple concussions 4. Athletes with multiple concussion recover much slower then athletes who have experiences a single concussion 5. Athletes with multiple concussions show poorer memory recall then athletes with a single concussion when tested two days post concussion 6. Athletes with multiple concussion show performance that is 7.7 worse then single concussion athletes in a memory recall test * once athlete is concussed they are more likely to get another one* Impact Battery ▯ neural psychological test given in preseason and determine if results show that they still have concussion symptoms A professor (Joliquer) determined that the impact battery test was not sufficient enough, so he developed an EEG • ERP Measures of cognitive processing o Event related potentials (ERPS) are averaged electrical brain responses to time-locked stimuli o N2pc = ERP component related to the focusing of visuospatial attention (high N2pc ▯ highly engaged) o P300 = measure of stimulus classification processing speed (how fast can you process and classify a stimulus) o These two ERPS are in a temporal orientation (ie. N2pc first then P300 next) Joliquer’s experiment w/ 3 groups ▯ Athletes never diagnosed w/ concussion ▯ Athletes diagnosed w/ 1 concussion ▯ Athletes diagnosed w/ 2+ concussions ▯ All the athletes that had had concussion had been removed from practice for 9 months ▯ Did the impact test on all of them first ▯ Then they preformed the colour trail task ▯ No difference then colour trail task and memory test ▯ Dictated that they were fit enough to return to play ▯ Preformed the box classification (orientation of coloured stimulus) ▯ NO difference in the N2pc • No difficulty w/ attention processes ▯ BIG difference in the P300 (lowest in multiple concussed athletes) • Have trouble processing and classifying stimulus (its 9 months after last concussion) ▯ This is the 1 study to show that there is a long term physiological cost to concussion ▯ this couldn’t have been seen with the battery test ▯ Equivalent neuropsychological test profiles of non- concussed, concussed, and multiple concussed athletes ▯ no difference in N2pc in non-concussed, concussed, and multiple concussed athletes • Suppressed P300 activity in multiple concussed athletes • The specificity of the long term effect of concussion provides a framework to pinpoint the cognitive • system impaired in multiple concussion “The Quick and the Dead” movie clip: • Person who unholsters their gun is usually the one who gets sho
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