SOC 2172 - Detailed reading study notes

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Department
Management and Organizational Studies
Course
Management and Organizational Studies 1021A/B
Professor
Gale Cassidy
Semester
Winter

Description
Sociology of Advertising and Society Article Summaries ONE – Introduction Introduction:  Examining the role of ad and promo in expansionary phase of market economy  Global advertising a 471 billion business (249.2 billion US ad expenditures)  Advertising has become an accepted part of everyday life. Symbolic attributes of goods, as well as the characters, situations, imagery, and jokes of advertising discourse are now fully integrated into our cultural repertoire.  James Twitchell (1996): Compared advertising to a religion for its honest celebration of consumer goods as the key to Contemporary American life-ways  Advertising defined: o Enthusiasts: Informational tool that empowered the consumer o Mass culture gurus say it turns consumers into dupes o Mirror reflecting back our deep seated material visions o Persuasive force articulating new consumption patterns which impacted on the ongoing social, economic, and cultural practices of the consumer society.  Century ago privileged discourse was through church sermons, political oratory, and family elders. Their prominence has diminished considerably o Over preceding century marketplace has become significant medium of social communication  Communication of attitudes, expectations, their sense of identity, values, intentions, and aesthetic expression, are strongly associated with patterns of ownership, preference, display, and use of things. Significant portion of public talk is of consumer goods.  Relationship between persons and nature fundamental to our survival. o Goods are marks of honor, prestige, and rink; bind us in affection, love, and friendship; designate moments of celebration; denote safety and trust; invoke myth and tell stories through their display and use. o Objects are embedded with the warp and weft of social relations we call „material cultures‟  Material objects serve as self-expression, used to satisfy wants.  Society distinguished from contemporary by volume of G&S available, and intensity of promotional effort.  Advertisings role within relations of production and consumption is not only economic but also cultural. o Advertising is an integral part of modern culture.  Appropriates and transforms symbols and ideas  Discourse that binds images of persons, products, and well being  Although accounts of market economy provided by business and of sociology differ, both are necessary for understanding of role played by advertising.  Goods are the point of contact between commodity relations and the broader channels of social communication.  As marketing practices become more skillful at addressing the social dimension of consumption, advertising becomes a privileged form of social communication.  Refer to markets‟ social communication about consumption as privileged in two senses: o Economic affairs and marketplace transactions occupy an important place in public life o At individual level the discourse through and about objects sidles up to us everywhere, beckoning, teasing, haranguing, instructing, cajoling, and informing our daily interactions with each other in most settings.  Goods become doubly articulated: o Meanings and uses in daily lives o Promotional discourse of corporations that advertise them Advertising as persuasion in the marketplace: Vance Packard – The Hidden Persuaders: We are influenced and manipulated more than we realize. These efforts take place beneath our level of awareness.  Through motivational research showed that consumers were becoming creatures of conditioned reflex rather than of rational thought.  Research directed at advertising that was underhanded and covert. Packard was reinforced by Key Wilson Bryan Key (1972 & 1976): Discussions of alleged technique of subliminal perception in advertising.  Whether techniques impossible to perceive at the conscious level of awareness are concealed within the construction of the advertising message and if they can influence behaviour (Ex. Sec in Ritz Crackers, and sexual imagery in ice cubes for alcohol ad)  Modifies behaviour invisibly, channels basic value systems and manages human motives in the interest of special power structure Neither Packard or Key were able to point to actual instances but Packard did have motivational research to help but no evidence of motivational effects that result form subliminal stimuli. Basically saying that advertising knows more than we do. In past advertising was deceptive, and used to solve problems of under consumption in new economy. Matin Bell – Marketing: Concepts and Strategy  1920s-1930s: advertising sought to escalate consumer demand  1930s: social criticism of this approach increased. New marketing orientation based on intensive Market research, and effective design of new products (Marketing concept). Sell through customer satisfaction. Discovering rather than creating needs, and make goods meaningful. o Integration of price, product, promo, and place o Classic Liberal theory: market behaviour of consumers is based on deliberate and calculated action. Rational consumers buy what they truly need.  Recognition of want  Search for means of satisfaction (Advertising)  Evaluation of competing alternatives (Advertising)  Decision o Controversy escalated as corps starting investing in advertising to influence opinion and behavior (sexing up wares) o 1950s: launch of TV ads provoked more people to see persuasion  Publishing of Vance Packard‟s hidden persuaders opened window into marketers‟ account of what they did by exposing the “depth of psychology” techniques they employed… and evoked increasingly uneasy relationship with the onslaught of media advertising  Two challenges launched by Packard‟s critique o Placed marketing as a form of manipulation in ads within communication and culture theories, rather than economics o Called marketers integrity into question (creates wants for what we don‟t need) 1960s: Political economists concerned about changing power relationships between producers and consumers in the market economy.  Marketers ridicule idea of psychic manipulators – informed consumer and responsible producer are cornerstone of democratic market system because they aim to discover wants and to design to respond. Also consumers aren‟t stupid, free agent who can do own search to satisfy needs and wants.  1961: George Stigler – The Economics of Information: justified advertising as an important source of consumer information. o Advertising reduces search costs and improves choices (assimilation of information) but must become a form of entertainment to earn privileged place in mkt economy. Therefore information to persuade customers is a legitimate and welcomes way of market competition by consumers o Puffery: exaggeration and embellishment rather than deception which implies lying or falsehood. o Persuasion is inherent part of democratic process… a rational man will be able to detect the truth 1970: Theodore Levitt: Agreed with view of persuasion, as long as audiences aren’t outright deceived.  “Consumer is more than a mere spectator.” – Toronto theologians Term manipulation slowly faded from debate 1984: Michael Schudson - Advertising the Uneasy persuasion  Today much ads don‟t contain either info or persuasion  Appeals to emotions and feelings  Consumers acceptance of marketing persuation is a rational process that empowers them 1984 1992: Driver and Foxall: Detailed review of studies of consumer choices.  Describing the consumer as rational and problem solving is highly limited  People seem indifferent about information and don‟t express interest in finding more rather most decisions seem to be influenced by interpersonal communications o Low-involvement – impulsive and routine o Selecting without too much time or thought invested: essentially passive (Shopping is a social occasion) o Advertising of itself incapable of building preference or conviction 1991: Andrew Wernick: In order to navigate marketing society must pay constant attention to modes of consumer behaviour as the arena wherein pleasure and the good life can be found. Advertisers overwhelm us with symbolic meaning and lifestyle references that in final analysis we have to determine which ones are most meaningful. (98% of goods fail) Going beyond the rhetoric: Advertising accused of promoting in superficial ways, causes people to overvalue material things in life, and creates wants, manipulates psychological processes, and promotion of unworthy ideals. Critics chiefly attack materialist ethos pays little attention to actual workings of advertising. Not a lot of validity to a lot of claims, but continued debate lends support to common perception that advertising has some influence on serious issues in modern social lives. Critiques of society masquerading as critiques of advertising. Critics are aiming at wrong target. Defenders: Advertising doesn‟t act forcefully via intra-personal, mental processes to create attitudes, which determine behaviour, but works broadly to enhance cumulative brand values associated with products. Cumulative and broad impact of messages where influence is felt “Aggregate affect of advertising on a materialistic society may be very great” Laws and industry codes of ethics are supposed to discourage unfair or misleading practices as an attempt to work out compromise among parties with conflicting viewpoints. (Customer and Advertiser). People generally regard advertising as a positive role in society and most ads are an insult to their intelligence. Social Communication Approach to the Study of Advertising  Advertisings role as a primary form of social communication  It‟s a special and uniquely problematic business institution as its key site of negotiation between economic and cultural spheres  Positive contributions: raising standards of living, expanding range of lifestyle choices, social diversity, and aesthetics articulated in our material culture.  Acknowledged as a form of artistic expression  Culturalist defenders downplay advertising‟s historical contribution to the expansion of material culture  As an industry it mediates btwn commodity production and cultural production creating an oscillating feedback loop  Advertising seen as channel through which social change is constantly mediated  Pillar of history reflected in the consensus that we can grasp the implications of present day practices best by seeing how they were composed and put into place during preceding history.  Robert Atwan (1979) – Edsels, Luckies, and Frigidaire‟s: ads tell us a great deal about an entire civilization. To understand present we must disassemble it.  Historians have offered in depth analysis of particulars  Traditional study of past is: o Indispensible for understanding both how the present came about and what the future possibly holds o Culture: How advertising systematically responds and contributes to cultural change o Lest important aspect of significance is role in influencing consumer choices. o Critics and defenders of advertising state that either modern economy needs it, or consumers get little info from it but both limit understanding of role of advertising in culture.  Entire social context and social significance of advertising has altered radically th  20 C saw rise in real income and purchasing power of average person in Western societies, along with technological innovations came the shift from text based messages to images.  Understanding the role of advertising requires us to pay attention to the context as well. From Product Description to Social Communication: Advertising offered models of the good life and insight in how to achieve personal pleasure and success. It developed within a nexus of a great many contradictions, which often strengthened the unique quality of its messages. In attempt to close divide btwn aesthetic and pragmatic communicational concerns, advertisers popularized high and modern arts and were often more in tune and willing to react to changing public sentiments than any other institutions. Importance of advertising to modern society: it‟s the privileged discourse for circulation of messages and social cues about the interplay between persons and objects because:  State of economy is predominant concern in public affairs  Messages about goods surround use through interactions with communications media  Interpretation of social world is formulated against a backdrop of these messages In order to appreciate, we must pay attention to the context of the production exchange.  Advertising helped industrialism bring products associated with refined lifestyle to avg person  Modern economy based on production and consumption emerged  Ad agencies took on a specializes function but worked alongside other professionals – media professions  Flow of money which was straightforward became complex  Part of the price of advertising is in the product  Advertising becomes crucial bridge btwn activities of selling and communication  Money, influence, and information cross the bridge Only through integration of insights from a number of different approaches is it possible to fully understand the role of advertising:  Broad economic changes that characterize transition in societies from agricultural and artisanal to industrial which didn‟t only need new ways to produce goods but also new ways to distribute them.  Socio-cultural perspectives in seeking to understand how these economic changes influenced how people related to goods.  Specific manner in which economic and socio-cultural changes were institutionally mediated by emergence and development of commercial mass media and ad agencies.  Analyze advertisements from all periods of the 20thC to see how economic, soci- cultural, and institutional contexts influence their form and content. Advertisers devise wide varieties of changing strategies –which amount to intuitive guesses about the marketplace.  Drawing on previous analysis we see how framework impacts general understand of goods and how they‟re integrated into process of satisfaction and communication in society Page 12 – 16 basically provides a chapter summary. TWO – Advertising in Canada Advertising: collective noun to refer to all ads, or system of communication through which G&S are brought to the attention of the General Public Raymond Williams (1987): First, content of ads is in every medium of communication. Ads are one-way mediated communication intended for mass persuasion. Manipulate shared words, images, and symbols to create favorable impressions. (Salesmanship in print) Second, business of advertising structures media operations. Media needs advertisers for all their costs. In order to attract advertisers must have value, which is determined by size and quality of audience. Quality is demographic considerations that have an impact on purchasing decisions. Advertisers don‟t need mass media so mass media strives to bring quality. Historical Background: Modern advertising is integrated with mass media, and has developed over last 250 years. Advertising history depends on what you define as advertising… (Ex. Town crier?) First Canadian paper was Halifax Gazette (1752) publishing “copy” that was polite. Early 1800s we saw salesmanship emerge full of boastfulness and persuasion – arresting attention. 1880-1920: Changes during Industrial revolution. By 1920 common set of practices and institutions. As tech grew from 1830 we see increased productivity, and capacity, and a need to expand sales and distribution. Advertising opened up a channel of communication btwn manufacturers and public. Got more and more advanced. (Lithography, and steam-powered cylinder presses)  The advertising agency emerges, and begins developing certain functions o Media Buying: finding cheapest and best newspapers to advertise in till 1950s, but magazines, flyers, posters used as early as 1860. Agencies flourished in 1880s when national economy expanded o Creative service (1900): memorable copy and imagery. Hiring professional copywriters and artists eventually creative departments o Market Research (1910): Manufacturers expanded, customers grew more remote.  Demographic analysis offering empirical, quantitative picture of consumers  Psychological research offering theoretical, qualitative picture of consumers  W.D. Scott – 1910 belief that ads were hypnosis (Subliminal)  Today we have less sinister claims  By 1920 all leading agencies used Market Research o Research methods adapted to have mathematical precision, which bolstered agency credibility. 1920-1960: Ad industry adapted to broadcasting which was quickly integrated into existing structures.  Radio (1922): Gugliemo Marconi invented radio to improve safety of shops at sea. o Marine radio operators believed it interfered, and amateurs thought it sullied their hobby. o Drew a massive audience o Fed gov wanted to outlaw advertising but US stayed its cant because two major networks used it as financing because most people didn‟t complain. o Canada did it too to prevent people from switching to US radio o Sponsorship: associates advertisers name with entire program o Spots/commercials: brief segment of on-air time for sales talk  Television (1952): Same as radio, just an improvement and with added development of stage and film techniques to produce effective visuals. 1960s to Present: Gradual acceptance of multicultural heritage altered both media buying and creative services.  Montreal was commercial centre through 20thC.  1960 QB Francophone‟s begun fight for greater public life authority and agencies began to embrace multiculturalism and tailor ads to ethnic groups  QB Nationalists focused on advertising  English Canadian nationalists focused on media buying. Find greatest number of consumer reach at lowest cost. As federal government regulates through Income Tax Act and Foreign Publishers Advertising Services Act. May claim cost of advertising in Canadian Media outlets as business expense against income to encourage use of Canadian outlets and keep from losing revenue and facing closures. Institutions: Bring order to complexity of industry. Developed as people in advertising responded to pressures both inside and outside the industry. Issues they address are crucial to industries day to day operations. Rivals come together to promote common interests.  CNA: newspapers. Lobbies gov for policies favorable to newspapers and promotes them as an advertising medium.  CCNA/CMPA: Weekly and consumer mags  CAB: Radio, TV, cable, and satellite. Establishes labour and copyright standards. Advocate for private sector broadcasting.  ICA: Advertising agencies  CPRS: PR firms  ACA: National advertisers. Proof that advertising actually generates sales. Safeguard commercial free speech.  CMA: All sectors of industry. Effective marketing practices. Establish common standards for industry, and media buying or creative services.  Audit of Bureau Circulations (ABC): audits the circulation of newspapers and magazines. Designed by all reps from all 3 sectors to ensure acceptability.  NADBank: daily newspapers  Print Measure Bureau: magazines  Canadian Outdoor: posters, transit, billboards  Bureau of broadcast measurement: audience size of radio and TV outlets.  ACNeilson Canada: audits audience size of TV and use of internet sites  Government of Canada: Hate crime, packaging, labeling, copyright, food and drugs, trade marks etc. Protects community standards to reinforce confidence in all advertising.  Government of Quebec: charter of French language  Advertising Standards Canada: creative side. Watchdog monitoring content of advertisements. 14 principles to achieve accuracy and clarity. People can complain, they launch investigation and can stop or alter ad.  Ad Standards and Concerned Children‟s Advertisers  Canadian Marketing Association Current Issues: Globalization: Some agencies expand globally to where their clients expand. In the 1930s. Others in the 1970s when international expansion intensified they began to unite. Which allowed each agency to focus on the challenges in a specific country but work together in an international perspective. In 2003 we have 6 dominant groups. Beginning to extend their reach, and this affects smaller, regional agencies. In Canada Manufacturing sector dominated by foreign owned companies. So some agencies in Canada force to join a group, find a modest niche for themselves in Canada, or go international on their own. The Death of Advertising: Sergio Zyman says big budget ad campaigns may become a casualty of the media savvy 21 century. First because media outlets depend on ad revenue and must increase audience share or decrease ad rates. New media focuses on narrow audiences forcing ad agencies to create unique ads for each outlet. Second, Doug Sanders suggests public has grown cynical of ad messages and tunes them out. (Prompting the creating of entertaining and controversial ads, or even technology modification). PR, Guerrlia, and Viral marketing are diminishing the authority of mass marketing.  PR: 1920s and focuses on delivering messages through channels that the public trusts (news, press conferences, corporate events, sponsorship opportunities, and spectacles).  Guerrilla: unconventional channels of communication to reach audiences.  Viral: extreme form of GMktg. Using personal relationships to promote a product or service on a company‟s behalf. Accomplished by sparking word of mouth. Privacy: Publishers collect consumer information, and create databases, which they then sell to direct marketers who do not wish to advertise through the publisher. Digital tech allows more data to be collected across vast business networks creating highly specialized databases of individuals, which are more efficient. These practices have fostered anxiety among Canadians. We provide data to whom we trust but we don‟t want it shared with a third party. These databases may not be secure (both to insiders and outsiders). Fed Gov and CMA developed national legislation governing use of Personal Data for Advertising and Marketing (Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act – PIPEDA). Must have consent of individuals, secure from unauthorized use, and grant individuals access to their own files, as well as allowing subscribers to opt out. Companies outside of CMA don‟t observe do not call list. THREE – Persuasive Products Early focused on use value of products, then slowly moved on to focus on psychological utility of products. Introduction: Contemporary ads can persuade and manipulate beyond anything found in the past. They use images, persuasive writing, and emotional/psychological types of appeal. Although these 3 items have been identified as key elements of persuasion they are not synonymous with it. Conditions of production are relevant to questions of persuasiveness. We will consider how advertisements are shaped by the variety of institutional, organizational, and technical methods used in different social, political, and economic circumstances to produce them. Puffs, advertisements, and campaigns: definitions of advertising product  Advertisement: o First press ad traced to 1620s (Mercurius Mastic 1652 defined ads as quaint device in their trading. Daily Courant 1702 defined them as impertinences). th o Late 16 C: bureaus and registry offices set up to help supply people with wants of everyone without prejudice to any. Centers of adresse, intelligence, discoveries, encounters, and advice. o French for inform, warn, or announce o 1600s: advertisement AKA announcement o 1700s: Used for certain types of advertisements ex. Publisher‟s notes. th  Puff: Beginning of 18 C as used of promotional messages. Conveys boosting of inflating of the reputation. o Blasts, bubbles, bubblemongering: fraudulent connotations o Elliot: more engaging and subtle form of publicity o Henry Fielding: Institution of Rhetoric, or art of persuasion o Late 19 C: less used and associated with marginal forms of advertising  Campaign rather than individual ad is core focus of most industry activity. Ad agencies began to assume specialist forms and functions of the full-service agency. Shift emphasis away from brilliant individual to more planned, professional system of production. Coherent and appropriate marketing strategy. o By 1910: in reference to a style of planned, client service. o End of 19thC: signaling precise and strategic nature of advertising The Image: Display, Illustration and the Visual Appeal: Images not popular, or regular till 1850 has been read as a sign of their superfluity. How did some of the circumstances shape the use of images in the two primary forms of pre-1900 press and poster advertising? Press Advertising: image was not a well-developed element. Elements were display, layout, and typography, and these were relentlessly and artfully manipulated to secure maximum impact. Drop capitalization of first word over two lines of type, pointing hands, asterisks, and small woodcut illustrations were also used. Anything to catch the reader‟s eye, and these were primary methods of securing visual impacts.  Began using white space, headings, different type effects, small illustrations and cuts, which develop into larger ads.  Late 19 C – introduction of elaborate ornamental borders.  1743 – ½ a page and broke column rules  Future development was uneven  1820s: these techniques become scarce due to politico-economic, institutional, and technological forces o UK = Stamp duty 1712-1855 limits papers to single sheets  Advertisements subject to flat rates  Could not offset stamp duty by including more ads  Adopt small type faces and increase # of columns o USA = stamp duty repealed after 6 months  Some used display & illustration as way to fun paper and distract readers th  Developing into robust hardsell by 19 C  Agate only enforce by 1840s o Restriction on size of illustration since still printed on wood cuts which were usually unsuitable on the type of ink and paper o Attitude to ads by publishers: refused saying it would lower dignity, and only lots of small ads rather than large ones. th  Images used a ton in UK at beginning of 19 C understood persuasive potency of images  1855: illustrated ads were more effective to express meaning but by 1850s illustrations disappeared  Resulting in a lot of attention catching stunts. Esp Bonner thus leading to relaxed US display restrictions.  British begin to allow bold and allow to run across more than 1 column  Display and illustrations becoming common Broadsides, posters, and other forms of promotions: posters escaped a lot of regulations, but were still subject to limits imposed by print and reproduction th technologies. Which prevented large, colour posters well into 19 C, but a vibrant, colourful, noisy, and spectacular promotional environment existed. th  End of 15 C: Broadsides – single sheets printed on one side only, sold by printed, at fairs, and by street vendors for penny or less o Only in black ink, two colours, range of typefaces, fancy borders, and small woodcut illustrations. o Illustrations or artwork for special events o Illustrations for luxury products o Unlikely that they advertised promo of everyday goods and services th  17 C: Tradecards: monochrome, medium, engraved on wood, or copper. (Like business cards) used to attract custom and patronage of the wealthy o letterpress tradecards reserve for poorer trades o gradually gave way to engraved illustrations of products, tradesmen at work, manufacturing processes and premises o 1730s: style of card begun to reflect fashions  Neither tradecards not broadsides employed as stand alone promotion. Integrated with range of devices. Handbills, tradecards, and tickets, street banners, flags, bunting, posters. o Promotional mix. o Overcoming technical limits by using multiple forms of promotion ex fairs and carnivals o Compulsion to create a grand stir o Used gaslight to illuminate both ad posters and window displays and most restricted to urban environments, but put on rocks, barns, trees etc  Strategith adapted to suit what was technically and technologically achievable  Early 19 C: posters and broadsides really popular – text rather than illustration based th  Middle of 19 C: advanced tech allowing 16 sheet sized posters on which woodcut letters and illustrations could be used – conditions good  1860s: France exploited visual potential of posters signaling the beginning in a boom of poster exhibiting and collecting  1870s: lithographic and printing techniques = production costs low enough to facilitate large scale commercial use  1886: USA, art used in ad. Artist regards work of artists as unconnected in essence and function to the task of advertisers. Degrading and devaluing the original, but art critics disagreed. th  20 C: use of academic art was easier because of advanced tech o Purchase of art for ads calculated to be culturally uplifting and lend dignity to ad industry o This all begins to make carnival obsolete  IN CONCLUSION: Consider use of images in promo within the context of technical and institutional possibility. With less technology they were still able to use a variety of combinations of promotions to stimulate demand. The words: rhetorical strategies of advertising copy: capacity to persuade rather than simply inform is primary distinction between contemporary and historical advertising which was more innocent, more simple, and informative.  Fielding: awareness of variety of purposes to which puffing can be put “art of persuauion”  Self promotion is part of the grand science of life – lyrical exaggeration is fairly typical.  Noblest objects may be so associated as to be made ridiculous.  Associative transfers are treated as primary offences of contemporary advertising  Mckendrick: array of verbal techniques, puns, slogans, verse, parody and narrative, in common use during this period.  Absence of images compensated for by evocative and picturesque „purple‟ prose, and a literary culture of „puffing‟ was fostered.  Packwood, Wright, Moses, and Robins were identified as leading figures in this style.  Prevalence of literary style can also be judged from the commentary it attracted.  Lit ads were simple information but as beguiling inducements that an unsuspecting public – esp women “amiable and gentle wives and daughters” had to be protected from.  Rhymes are memorable and provide an efficient way of ensuring recall – a core function of all advertising  Rowell: connected with some topic, or event which is the conversation of the hour  Early century had writers and poets working on ad copy, and then slowly newspaper people took over this role.  Establishment of full time agency system was well underway and this impacted written appeals as the notion of campaign became increasingly attractive.  REASON WHY appeals: articulating a specific argument for purchase.  Around this time books appeared debating ad and copy techniques – part of move to more formalized agency system  Powers 1870/80s: wrote clear, economical, and sincere reason based copy freelance  Growth in the trade provided opportunity for powers method to be spread by write practitioners  Eventually making it difficult to asses the rhetorical persuasive elements of advertising  Advertisers wanted to dazzle, entertain, amuse, and persuade  Involvement of occupational groups, ongoing visual restrictions, and growth of agency system all contributed to the popularity of particular styles of verbal appeal at different stages. th The emotions: Going for the jugular: Emotional dimension is associated with the late 20 C. The emotional selling point is a phenomenon that is specific to the period after the 1980s. Can these changes in practice and technique be reasonably understood as „new‟ structure to emotional appeal? Are they understood as product of any given media or techniques?  Using fear as a method of appeal – invocation of dire consequences arising from failure to use product.  Fear of social embarrassment Ex. James Walter Thompson and deodorant  Perceived need for a „powerful appeal‟  Relationship between type of appeal, specific working practices, and nature of product itself.  Products and markets do not determined appeal: there is always a range of possibilities but there is a relationship  Nature of the product combines with the existence of particular practices, knowledge, and precedents in the industry to mediate in favour of particular types of approach.  Relationship between research and campaigns is far from straightforward  Research not designed to discover truth but to generate ideas – filtered through individuals, working practices, and agency culture  Emotional punch not carried by single element rather a few. Typography, artwork, and copy. Therefore emotional appeals are produced through different elements  Aim for personal and human, as well as scientific, restrained, and dignified.  Psychology could contribute to advertising business; emotions played a major part in influencing people to buy specific products.  Curti and McMahon: consumer is inherently emotional and unreasonable on one hand, and inherently logical and reasonable on the other. Emotion v reason.  Agencies have differences in technique creating their own brand  Even the most reasoned advertising appeal is still an emotional appeal  Emotion should be recognized as a dimension of appeal that is not resident within particular elements of advertising or facilities of media, but is contingent upon the system of production Concluding comments:  Rhetoric and emotions is the most fundamental, and therefore the appropriate focus for a reconsideration of historical advertising.  Persuasivenes
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