Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B Final: MOS 2181A/B - Final Exam Study Notes (ch. 9-15)

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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Carol- Lynn Chambers

Chapter 9: Learning Decision Making Learning: Relatively permanent changes in an employees knowledge or skill that results from experience The more employees learn the more they bring to the table Learning has a significant impact on decision making Decision making: The process of generating choosing from a set of alternatives to solve a problem The more knowledge skills employees possess, the more likely they are to make accurate sound decisions One reason inexperience can be so problematic is that learning is not necessarily easy It takes most employees three months to a year to perform at a satisfactory level This makes it even more important for companies to find a way to improve learning and decision making by their employees Expertise: The knowledge skills that distinguish experts from novices Research shows that the difference between experts novices is almost always a function of learning Learning cannot be directly seen or observed, but we can tell what people have learned by observing changes in their behaviors Employees learn two basic types of knowledge (1) Explicit knowledge: Knowledge that is easily communicated available to everyone If you can put the infoknowledge in a manual or write it down, chances are its explicit This info is necessary to perform well but it winds up being only a minor part of what you need to know Easily transferred through verbal or written communication Readily available Can be learned through books Always conscious info General info (2) Tacit knowledge: Knowledge that employees can typically learn only through experience It cant be easily communicated but could very well be the most important aspect of what we learn in organizations It has been argued that up to 90 of the knowledge contained in organizations occurs in tacit form The knowhow, knowwhat, knowwho acquired solely through experience Highly personal in nature Based on experience Sometimes holders dont even recognize they possess it Typically job or situation specific Its hard to build tacit knowledge without explicit knowledge Tacit knowledge is a key strategic asset to the company We learn through reinforcement (rewards punishments), observation, experience Methods of Learning (2) (1) Reinforcement: B.F. Skinner was the first to pioneer this notion originally known as operant conditioning that we learn by observing the link between our voluntary behr the consequences that follow it Research shows that people will exhibit certain behrs if they are rewarded for doing so Operant Conditioning Components: Antecedent Behr Consequence o Antecedent: Condition that precedes the behr (Manager sets specific difficult goals) Goals, rules instructions o Behr: Actions performed by the employee (meets assigned goal) o Consequence: Result that occurs after the behr (receives a bonus) Contingencies of Reinforcement: Four specific consequences typically used by organizations to modify employee behrs 1. Positive reinforcement: a positive outcome follows a desired behr (increases desired behaviors) a. Increased pay, promotions, praise b. To be successful employees need to see the direct link between the behr outcome 2. Negative reinforcement: an unwanted outcome is removed following a desired behr (increases desired behrs) 3. Punishment: occurs when an unwanted outcome follows an unwanted behr (decreases undesired behrs) a. The employee is given something thy dont like after performing behrs the organization doesnt like 4. Extinction: occurs when there is a removal of a positive outcome following an unwanted behr Positive reinforcement extinction should be the most common forms of reinforcement used by managers to create learning among their employees Schedules of reinforcement: The timing of when contingencies are applied or removed Continuous reinforcement: which a specific consequence follows every occurrence of a certain behr o New learning is acquired most rapidly under a continuous schedule High performance level but difficult to maintain Praise Fixedinterval: reinforcement occurs at fixed time periods o Most common form o Average performance level o Pay cheque Variableinterval: reinforcement occurs at random periods of time o Moderately high performance
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