First Midterm Notes

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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Jody Merritt

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR MIDTERM CHAPTERS 1234567 CHAPTER 1 Define organizations and describe their basic characteristicsOrganizations are social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effortSocial inventions characterized by the coordinated presence of peopleThe field of organizational behaviour is about understanding people and managing them to work effectivelyGoal accomplishment in OB terms is concerned with how organizations survive and adapt to change Therefore people must o Be motivated to join and remain o Carry out basic work reliably o Continuously learnupgrade skillsknowledge o Be flexible and innovativeGroup EffortThe interaction and coordination among people to accomplish organizational goalsThe field of Organizational Behaviour OB is concerned with how to get people to practice effective teamworkExplain the concept of organizational behavior and describe the goals of the fieldOrganizational Behaviour The attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizationsWe will explore o The role of organizational culture on the effectiveness of organizations o How employees in organizations learn o How organizations motivate employees o How managers communicate with employeesWhy study OB o Its interesting o Its important o It makes a differenceThe workforce human capital can create a sustainable competitive advantage for organizationsGoals of Organizational Behaviour OB to provide a systemic understanding of behavioural science that assists us in o Predicting OB o Explaining OB and why events occur o Managing OB by taking appropriate actionDefine management and describe what manages do to accomplish goalsManagement is the art of getting things accomplished in organizations through others1What managers should do Manage OB by taking action using an analytic approach Contrast the classical viewpoint of management with that which the human relations movement advocatedClassical Viewpoint advocated high specialization of labour intensive coordination and centralized decision makingFrederick Taylors Scientific Management system used research to determine the optimal degree of specialization and standardization of work tasksMax Weber advocated Bureaucracy o A strict chain of command o Selectionpromotion based on technical competence o Detailed rules regulations and procedures o High specialization o Centralized powerExpected results standardized behaviour and worker securityThe Human Relations Movement advocated more participatory management styles oriented towards employees needsThe Hawthorne Studies 1920s1930s illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity and work adjustmentHuman Relations Movement especially critiqued o Strict specializationincompatible with human need for growth and achievement o Strong centralizationreliance on formal authority loses creativity and knowledge of lowerlevel employees o Strict impersonal rulesleads to minimum performance standards o Strong specializationcauses employees to lose sight of overall organizational goalsBoth Classical and Human Relations viewpoints have merit o How much control and coordination is optimal o What are the external and internal environments of the particular organizationDescribe the contemporary contingency approach to managementAn organization has many contingencies dependencies to deal withContingency approach to management recognizes that there is no one best way to manageAn appropriate management style depends on the demands of the situationExplain what managers dotheir roles activities agendas for action and thought processesHenry Mintzbergs study of what managers do divides their roles into 3 main groups o Interpersonal roles2Interpersonal roles are expected behaviours that have to do with establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationsIn the figurehead role managers serve as symbols of their organization rather than active decision makersIn the leadership role managers select mentor reward and discipline employeesIn the liaison role managers maintain horizontal contacts inside and outside the organization o Informational rolesThese roles are concerned with the various ways managers receive and transmit informationIn the monitor role managers scan the internal and external environments of the firm to follow current performance and to keep themselves informed of new ideas and trendsIn the disseminator role managers send information on both facts and preferences to othersThe spokesperson role concerns mainly sending messages into the organizations external environment o Decisional rolesIn the entrepreneur role managers turn problems and opportunities into plans for improved changesIn the disturbance handler role managers deal with problems stemming from employee conflicts and address threats to resources and turfIn their resource allocation role managers decide how to deploy time money personnel and other critical resourcesIn the negotiator role managers conduct major negotiations with other organizations or individualsThe importance of each role varies with management levelManagerial Activities Human Resource Mgmt Networking Routine Communication Traditional Management Routine communicationthis includes the formal sending and receiving of information as in meetings and the handling of paperwork3
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