Duplessis.SG.Chapter 10.pdf

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Department
Management and Organizational Studies
Course
Management and Organizational Studies 2275A/B
Professor
Henry Meredith
Semester
Winter

Description
CHAPTE10:INTRODUCTION TO TORT LAW C HAPTER 10 I NTRODUCTION TO T ORT L AW Objectives After studying this chapter, you should have an understanding of: • the broad scope of tort law • the differences between a civil action and a criminal action • the purpose of tort remedies • how business can manage its potential liability in tort Learning Outcomes • Understand the difference between intentional torts and negligence (pages 232) • Understand the difference between a civil action and a criminal action (pages 233) • Understand the purpose of the damage award (page 234) • Understand the concept of vicarious liability (pages 234) • Understand what is included in pecuniary and nonpecuniary damages (pages 238) • Understand how a business can manage its tort risk (pages 242) Chapter Summary Tort law h as a sign ificant im pact on busine ss enterprises, par ticularly in the area of negligence. Tort law perm its someone who ha s been injur ed or suf fered a lo ss to sue th e responsible person for dam ages. The objective of a dam ages award is to compensate the plaintiff, though punitive da mages are som etimes available if the defendant’s conduct has been particularly egregious. Aggravatemages are als o available to com pensate the person who suf fers intangible in juries such a s distr ess o r hum iliation caused by the defendant’s reprehensible conduct. Less commonly, the injured party will seek an injunction or other form of equitable rem edy, atrespass-to-land scenario. Crim inal law also affects a business, though to a less er degree. As the purpose of a criminal law is to punish the offender – through fines and imprisonm ent – di stinct procedures are in place to help ensure that only guilty people are convFor example, in a cr iminal prosecution the Crown must prove its case beyond a reasonable doubt . By way of contrast, the plaintiff in a tort action need only demonstrat e his case on the balance of probabilities. Liability in tort can be primary or vicarious. Primary liability arises due to one’s own personal wrongdoing. Vicarious liability arises due to the relationship one has with the actual tort-feasor, as in an employer-employee context. Since a business may have several em ployees, its exposure in this area can be considerable. When a person is injured due to the tortuous conduct of more than one person, those culpable are knowjoint tort-feasors. A court can apportion liability between them, but the victim or plai ntiff can recover 100 percent of the judg ment 151 PART3:BUSINESS TORTS from any one of them . W hen a tort victim is at least p artially responsible for his own injuries, he has been contribu torily negligent. The a mount that the plaintiff is awarded will be reduced by the proportion for w hich he is responsible. Sometimes, the same set of facts can give rise to liability in tort and in contract, particularly in the context of a professional advice giver such as a lawyer or an accountant. The best response a business can have to its potential liability in tort is to establish a risk m anagement plan that reduces, eliminates, or transfers risk. Study Outline Use this outline to prepare a complete set of notes for this chapter. Tort – page 229 ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ How torts are categorized_________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Intentional tort_______________________________________________________ Assault __________________________________________________________ Battery __________________________________________________________ Negligence _________________________________________________________ Deceit or fraud _________________________________________________________ Trespass to land________________________________________________________ _ Tort Law and Criminal Law – page 232 ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Purposes of the actions ___________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Commencing the actions__________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Proving the actions ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Liability in Tort – page 234 ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Primary and vicarious liability _____________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Liability and joint tort-feasors _____________________________________________ Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd. CHAPTER10:INTRODUCTION TO TORT LAW ______________________________________________________________________ Liability and contributory negligence________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Joint tort-feasors ________________________________________________________ Damages in Tort – page 237 ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Purpose of damages _____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Workers compensation legislation __________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Nonpecuniary damages___________________________________________________ Pain and suffering_________________________________________________ Loss of enjoyment of life ___________________________________________ Loss of life expectancy_____________________________________________ Pecuniary damages ___________________________________________________ Cost of future care_________________________________________________ Loss of future income______________________________________________ Special damages __________________________________________________ Punitive damages ____________________________________________________ Exemplary damages __________________________________________________ Aggravated damages__________________________________________________ Tort Law and Contract – 241 ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Managing Tort Risk – page 242 ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ SELF-ASSESSMENT Key Terms Briefly define each term in the space provided. Tort – page 229 ______________________________________________________________________ 153 PART3:BUSINESS TORTS ______________________________________________________________________ Tort-feasor – page 230 ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Trespass to land – page 229 ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Negligence – page 230 ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Deceit or fraud – page 230 ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Intentional tort – page 232 ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Assault – page 232 ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Battery – page 232 ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Vicarious liability – page 234 ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Contributory negligence – page 237 ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Workers’ compensation legislation – page 237 ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Joint tort-feasors – page 237 ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Nonpecuniary damages – page 238 ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd. CHAPTER 10INTRODUCTION TO TORT LAW Pecuniary damages – page 238 ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Punitive damages – page 239 ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Aggravated damages – page 241 ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Matching Match the correct letter of each term in the space provided before each sen tence. Some answers may be used more than once. A Inten tional tort B Negligence C Contributory negligence D Vicarious liability E Joint tort-feasors F Balance of probabilities G Nonpecuniary losses H Pecuniary losses 1. ____ The liability that an employer has for the tortuous acts of an employee committed in the ordinary course or scope of employment. 2. ____ Two or more persons whom a court has held to be jointly responsible for the plaintiff’s loss or injuries. 3. ____ A careless act that causes harm to another. 4. ____ A harmful act that is committed on purpose. 5. ____ Proof that it is more likely than not that a tort took place. 6. ____ Compensation for cost of future care, loss of future income and special damages for out-of-pocket expenses. 7. ____ General damages for pain and suffering, loss of enjoyment of life and loss of life expectancy. 8. ____ A passenger in a car was not wearing a seat belt at the time of a crash. 9. ____ A business failed to salt an icy walkway and a customer fell. 10. ____ A patron of a bar threatens and punches another patron. 155 PART3:BUSINESS TORTS Questions Write a short, poin t-form answer for each ques tion in the space prov ided. To assist you in understanding the chapter, it is recommended that you also us e additional paper to write a full and complete essay answer for each question. 1. What has the Supreme Court of Canada identified as the function of tort law? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 2. What type of behaviour does the tort of trespass to land address? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 3. Does tort law automatically provide a remedy when someone has been physically or economically injured? Explain. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 4. On what basis does tort law seek to impose liability? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 5. What impact has no-fault auto insurance legislation had in some provinces? modify tort law? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd. CHAPTER10INTRODUCTION TO TORT LAW 6. What are the two main categories of torts? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 7. Contrast the tort of assault with the tort of battery? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 8. How is a charged party referred to in a criminal proceeding? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 9. What is the purpose of a criminal prosecution? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 10. Who brings the legal action in a tort claim and in a criminal prosecution? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 11. What is the primary goal of a tort remedy? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 12. What is a “structured settlement”? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 157 PART3:BUSINESS TORTS 13. Who has the burden of proof in a criminal action, and what is the standard of proof? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 14. What is the burden of proof required for the plaintiff to succeed? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 15. Outline the difference between primary and vicarious liability. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 16. Explain the doctrine of vicarious liability. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 17. What is the rationale for the doctrine of vicarious liability? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ________
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