Lecture 10 Study Notes
1. Discuss organ transplantation.
Before, assumed that organs could not be transplanted because individuals were too
different – suggested that immune response would kill the new organ. This was
proposed by Sir Peter Medewar.
2. What was Peter Medwars theory?
If you inject cells into a body, the immune cells will kill it off. If you inject it a second
time, they will be killed even faster. But if you inject them into a newborn, then no
immune response will occur because their system is not developed enough. This is
called immunilogical tolerance.
3. What was the paradox of progress?
Antibiotics had been created – so people were no longer dying from infection but
instead were dying form renal failure.
4. What happen when the renal failure rates increased?
Decided they would have to do kidney transplants but the kidney graft only worked
for 3 months due to immune rejection.
Joseph Murray transplanted between fraternal twins because he know
immunological tolerance would occur. He also was successful in the first long term
cadaver between non fraternal people.
6. What happens when you inject blood into a patient?
You get antigens that are called HLA – human leukocyte antigens (these are
produced by the foreign blood cell).
7. Where do these antigens come from?
Found in humans to be on chromosome 6 and in miice chromosome 17. They
formed the MHC complex – major histocompatibilty complex. In mie they were H-2.
They are huge genes - 4 million bp and