lecture4.pdf

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Department
Philosophy
Course
Philosophy 1200
Professor
Eric Desjardins
Semester
Fall

Description
Welcome to lecture #4! I Review I Chapter 2 Review: Counterfactual argument I An argument in which the premises are known or assumed to be false by the person making the argument. Review: Counterfactual argument I An argument in which the premises are known or assumed to be false by the person making the argument. I Example: If Steve Jobs was still alive, the iPhone 5 would have had a universal GSM chip, so it would support Wind’s network. Review: Counterfactual argument I An argument in which the premises are known or assumed to be false by the person making the argument. I Example: If Steve Jobs was still alive, the iPhone 5 would have had a universal GSM chip, so it would support Wind’s network. Two arguments I The counterfactual argument: 1. Suppose Jobs is alive 2. If Jobs is alive, the iPhone has a universal GSM chip 3. If the iPhone has a universal GSM chip, the iPhone supports Wind 4. Conclusion: the iPhone supports Wind Two arguments I The counterfactual argument: 1. Suppose Jobs is alive 2. If Jobs is alive, the iPhone has a universal GSM chip 3. If the iPhone has a universal GSM chip, the iPhone supports Wind 4. Conclusion: the iPhone supports Wind I The “real” argument: I Given the above counterfactual argument, we know that If Jobs was alive, the iphone would support Wind Review: Reductio ad absurdum I To prove a point by showing that its falsity would have consequences that do not obtain. Review: Reductio ad absurdum I Also two arguments: I The reductio: 1. Elvis is still alive (assumed for reductio) 2. If Elvis is still alive, he doesn’t like tacky imitators 3. If Elvis doesn’t like tacky imitators, someone would stop them 4. Conclusion: Someone would stop imitators Review: Reductio ad absurdum I Also two arguments: I The reductio: 1. Elvis is still alive (assumed for reductio) 2. If Elvis is still alive, he doesn’t like tacky imitators 3. If Elvis doesn’t like tacky imitators, someone would stop them 4. Conclusion: Someone would stop imitators I The “real” argument: since the conclusion of the above argument is false, the premise we start with must be false, so Elvis is dead. Review: Interpretation I Words, sentences, and entire texts are sometimes not easy to interpret. I There are many factors to be aware of, including: I Context I Emphasis I Sentence structure I Function I That is all you need to take home from the “meaning is use” theory discussed in the book. The important content of the theory is that meaning varies greatly with use. Review: Context I “The queen is in a vulnerable position” I Said at a chess match I On the cover of a British magazine Emphasis I You shouldn’t steal library books. Emphasis I You shouldn’t steal library books. I You shouldn’t steal library books. (But it may be acceptable for others to do so.) Emphasis I You shouldn’t steal library books. I You shouldn’t steal library books. (But it may be acceptable for others to do so.) I You shouldn’t steal library books. (But I won’t be surprised if you do.) Emphasis I You shouldn’t steal library books. I You shouldn’t steal library books. (But it may be acceptable for others to do so.) I You shouldn’t steal library books. (But I won’t be surprised if you do.) I You shouldn’t steal library books. (But defacing them is fine.) Emphasis I You shouldn’t steal library books. I You shouldn’t steal library books. (But it may be acceptable for others to do so.) I You shouldn’t steal library books. (But I won’t be surprised if you do.) I You shouldn’t steal library books. (But defacing them is fine.) I You shouldn’t steal library books. (But bookstore books are ok.) Emphasis I You shouldn’t steal library books. I You shouldn’t steal library books. (But it may be acceptable for others to do so.) I You shouldn’t steal library books. (But I won’t be surprised if you do.) I You shouldn’t steal library books. (But defacing them is fine.) I You shouldn’t steal library books. (But bookstore books are ok.) I You shouldn’t steal library books. (But magazines are ok.) Sentence structure I “Everybody loves somebody” I Two interpretations: Sentence structure I “Everybody loves somebody” I Two interpretations: I Everyone is such that they love at least one person Sentence structure I “Everybody loves somebody” I Two interpretations: I Everyone is such that they love at least one person I There is someone, call them Lucky, such that everyone loves them Sentence structure I I asked him to call me this morning Sentence structure I I asked him to call me this morning I I asked him the following this morning: to call me Sentence structure I I asked him to call me this morning I I asked him the following this morning: to call me I I asked him to do the following: to call me this morning Sentence structure I I asked him to call me this morning I I asked him the following this morning: to call me I I asked him to do the following: to call me this morning I Time flies Sentence structure I I asked him to call me this morning I I asked him the following this morning: to call me I I asked him to do the following: to call me this morning I Time flies I A statement about how fast time seems to pass Sentence structure I I asked him to call me this morning I I asked him the following this morning: to call me I I asked him to do the following: to call me this morning I Time flies I A statement about how fast time seems to pass I A kind of fly Sentence structure I I asked him to call me this morning I I asked him the following this morning: to call me I I asked him to do the following: to call me this morning I Time flies I A statement about how fast time seems to pass I A kind of fly I Visiting relatives can be boring Sentence structure I I asked him to call me this morning I I asked him the following this morning: to call me I I asked him to do the following: to call me this morning I Time flies I A statement about how fast time seems to pass I A kind of fly I Visiting relatives can be boring I Visiting relatives are potentially boring Sentence structure I I asked him to call me this morning I I asked him the following this morning: to call me I I asked him to do the following: to call me this morning I Time flies I A statement about how fast time seems to pass I A kind of fly I Visiting relatives can be boring I Visiting relatives are potentially boring
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