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Final

Physiology 2130 Final: Prof Nissen- Endocrine system


Department
Physiology
Course Code
PHYSIO 2130
Professor
Dr.Caeteno
Study Guide
Final

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1
Prof Nissen- Endocrine System!
"
Communication systems !
"
-FOR CELLS IN EITHER THE NERVOUS OR THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM TO RESPOND
THERE MUST BE A RECEPTOR."
-hormone action can be sustained more because it is circulating in the blood "
"
Target cell- cell that has the receptor for a certain hormone (not every cell has a receptor for
EVERY hormone, thus a cell may be a target cell for one type of hormone, but not for another
type). To be activated by the hormone, the cell must have the receptor for that hormone. "
"
Endocrine tissues..!
In the pituitary:"
- oxytocin"
-ADH"
In the thyroid:"
-T3"
-T4"
In the pancreas:"
-insulin"
-glucagon"
In the Adrenals:"
-cortisol"
-aldosterone "
** hormones can be released by GLANDS (pituitary, thyroid, hypothalamus) OR NORMAL
CELLS (heart, intestinal cells)"
"
Hormone- chemical signal secreted into the bloodstream that goes to act on distant tissue."
Ex. pancreas releases insulin which acts on the entire body"
"
Protein/ Peptide hormones!
-a.a. are their precursor (building blocks), hormones are categorized by their precursor! "
-hydrophilic (think of a protein shake), very soluble in water"
-blood is mainly water thus protein dissolves well in blood and doesn't need to bind on
to anything to travel through the blood "
-the receptors for proten/peptide hormones are in the plasma membrane "
Ex. hypothalamic and pituitary hormones—> insulin "
Nervous System
Endocrine System
Type of chemical signal
neurotransmitters
hormone
Where does the chemical
signal travel through?
synapse (place btwn two
neurons
blood
speed of communication
rapid
slow
chemical signalling leads to…
action potential
various responses

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2
Steroid Hormones !
-precursor: cholesterol"
-lipophilic/ hydrophobic"
-do not dissolve in blood and must be transported by binding to blood
proteins "
-receptors found intracellularly (bc steroid hormones are hydrophobic and do
not want to be exposed to blood outside the cell)"
Ex. testosterone, estrogen, cortisol"
"
Amine Hormones !
-precursor: tyrosine (a.a.)"
Depending on which R group is attached to the tyrosine, the amine hormone can
be.."
-hydrophilic (dissolve in blood, no binding necessary for transport through blood,
receptor on plasma membrane). Ex. hydrophilic: catecholamines (epinephrine)"
-OR hydrophobic (not soluble in blood, must bind to blood protein for transport
through blood, receptor inside cell). Ex. lipophilic: thyroid hormones (T3 , T4)"
"
"
Anterior pituitary- has endocrine cells "
"
Posterior pituitary- has nervous system cells—> neurohormones bc they are released by
neurons. "
—> oxytocin: peptide hormone that promotes uterus contractions and promotes milk excretion"
—> ADH (vasopressin): peptide hormone that promotes water reabsorption in the kidneys"
-both are peptide hormones meaning are hydrophilic, dont need to bind to anything for
transport through blood, and their receptors are found on the plasma membrane. "
-diabetes insipidus (nothing to do with insulin type diabetes): lack ADH or mutated ADH
receptors—> need to pee a lot "
"
Hormone binding to receptors!
1. Hydrophilic hormones bind to membrane receptors on the outside of the cell and this
generates intracellular events—> this tends lead to ALTERING OF EXISTING PROTEINS
by"
-opening ion channels, changing enzyme activity"
-faster !
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