Political Science 1020E Study Guide - Final Guide: Russian Mafia, Social Safety Net, Susan Strange

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Issues of Sovereignty
Transnational problems – problems which
cross borders
Trans-sovereign problems – Problems which
are not solvable by one state or by state actors
Key: globalization
oFacilitation (easier)
oIntensity (greater impact)
oInterdependence (“states relying on
each other rather than do alone/self”:
tech, autos)
oSpreading – immigration, disease
(e.g., SARS)
oTransferring – environmental damage
(e.g., buying plastics from the
Chinese to transfer the burden of
environmental damage)
oBorders? – drugs, sex traffic, nuke
oGlobal organizations – UN, World
Bank, Russian mafia (some mafias
are a part of the actual state, such as
in Mexico)
Sovereignty of states – Westphalia 1648
oLegitimate right to make rules
oLand (air? water?)
oBorders: delineated,
demarcated, agreed upon by others
oLegitimate use-of-force
oMax Weber
oHas to be human population
oSystem, institutions, control
oBy other states
oMost important? = Non-
negotiable UN recognition
Why sovereignty after 1648?
Onuf: deal with competing authority structures
oInstitutions inspiring respect
oE.g.: monarchy, church
Potestas imperiandi
oCoerce and enforce rules
oE.g.: states, kingdoms
oBirth of England as an actual state
was 1066
oRule on behalf of citizens (Burke) –
oRuler has to provide for their people
(e.g., Saddam problems)
Spruyt: No political alternative to European
Westphalian state sovereignty (Adam Watson,
Robert Jackson)
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oRationalize resources and
oState economy – capitalist
economies of scale
oOne voice
oSingle authority – make
agreements, enforce rules
oGet rid of competing
political organizations
oPapacy, ethnicity, religion,
oColonialism and tribal
people < outside capitalism
(perhaps not outside of
oE.g., colonies of Russia
coming together
oInternational agreements
and equal standing
oAll (European) states are
equal – autonomous
oE.g., Germany =
Challenges = trans-sovereign issues
8,000 ethnicities or 191 states? – state needed
to manage without closing borders, etc.
(‘nation-states’ don’t exist)
oEconomies, flow of info, etc.
oRequire cooperation (Iraq; Af-Pak)
oCoordination: resources and
outcomes (success?)
oEconomic and social issues
Interconnected, e.g., drugs
= wealth x lifestyle x job x
respect x stress x health
American seniors who
come to Canada for
prescription drugs
oContracting out – selling
Paramilitary; mercenaries
for hire; Ugandan soldiers
who are contracted to
protect American
organizations (takes burden
of guilt off American
oGlobal economy – open markets,
open technologies
Managing financial crisis
BUT return to
“Performance  Bonus”
Future of sovereignty
‘Nostalgic fiction’ in the age of the global
economy (states not sole powers) – Ohmae
‘Retreat of the state’ (states can’t perform its
functions) – Susan Strange
oDefence of territory <
developed = no threat; developing =
can’t stop
government can’t stop the
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division into North and
oCurrency value < floating
currencies and global trade = no
Only China can
control their
oEconomic development < FDI =
Bringing cell
phones to India to
increase FDI
oEconomic management < pressure to
curtail fiscal or regulatory role =
laissez-faire, get state out of the way
Increasing the gap
between rich and poor
Social safety net < decrease spending
and reduce taxes = can’t help own population
Lower taxes = less public works <
better markets
Decisions about trade less about
state’s interests < states are marginal decision-
makers in trading
Cannot build infrastructure <
privatize, proprietary rights, keep taxes low,
oUnable to secure
monopolies and certain states’
domestic industries < global trade,
No longer the only legit use of
violence < not so any more = other actors,
cheaper, faster, better trained
Skills revolution’ – James Rosenau
oGrowth of technologies to access
government directly, check information, be
oDiversity of skills needed by all
oIncrease democratic accountability
‘Territorial-less sovereignty’ – Richard Rosencrance
Does not need land-control
Japan: influence and role in many parts of the
Control of land does not guarantee sovereignty
> Iraq
o‘More things change...’ Krasner =
default assumption
o‘Organized hypocrisy’ > always
under challenge
oDefault assumption which makes
global politics possible
Changed in the post-Cold War era -- or has
During the Cold War: dominated by 'state
security' (keeping the government safe and
intact) and 'nuclear security' (avoiding nuclear
war) frameworks
oFocus on alliances, national security
problems, nuclear issues
oCollective security (NATO, UN,
Warsaw Pact)
oThreat to one state is a
threat to all
oSovereignty to be protected … above
all else
oPost-911: revived
Post-Cold War: state/nuclear security focus
opposed and/or complemented by other
conceptions of security, such as:
oEconomic security
oEnvironmental security
oGender security
oFood security
oHuman security
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