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Political Science 1020E Study Guide - Millennium Development Goals, Nonviolence, Joseph Schumpeter


Department
Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 1020E
Professor
Nig

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Political Science Review
Global Problems
Issues of Sovereignty:
- transnational problems: reaching beyond or transcending national boundaries
- trans-sovereign problems: not solvable by one state or by state actors
- global problem = confronting sovereignty while trying to solve problems
- Globalization: - facilitations (easier)
- intensity (greater impact)
- interdependence states relying on each other rather than do alone/self
- spreading: immigration, disease
- transferring: environment damage
- borders
- sovereignty of states Westphalia 1648
- jurisdiction
- territory/borders
- violence legitimate use of force
- population
- resources economy
- government system, institutions, control
- recognition by other states
- sovereignty after 1648:
- Onuf: deal with competing authority structures
- majesties (respect)
- postestas imperiandia (coerce & enforce rules)
- stewardships (rule on behalf of citizens)
- Spruyt:
- rationalize resources & economies
- one voice single authority
- get rid of competing political organizations international agreements & equal standing
- colonialism and tribunal peoples < outside capitalism
- international agreements & equal standing
- challenges = transsovereign issues:
- need manage without closing borders
- require cooperation
- global economy open markets
- today: - economic & social issues = interconnected
- global economy open markets? Managing financial crisis but return to “Performance Bonus” culture
- future of sovereignty: - nostalgic fiction in the age of the global economy Ohmae
- retreat of the state Susan Strange:
- defense of territory < developed
- currency value < floating currencies & global
- economic development < foreign direct investment

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- economic management < pressure to curtail fiscal or regulatory role = laissez faire
- reduce social safety net < decrease spending & reduce taxes = can’t help own population
- lower taxes = less public works < better markets
- unable to secure monopolies & certain states domestic industries
- social safety net < decrease spending & reduce taxes for pub works & social benefits < decrease for markets
- decisions about trade < states are marginal decision makers in trading
- building infrastructure < privatize, proprietary rights, etc.
- secure monopolies & domestic industries < global trade
- skills revolution Rosenau:
- growth of technologies to access government directly, check information, informed
- diversity of skills needed by all actors
- territorial less sovereignty Rosencrance:
- control of land does not guarantee sovereignty Iraq
- more things change Krasner
- Spruyt = no political alternative to European Westphalia states sovereignty
Secuirty: - during Cold War: dominated by state security and nuclear security framework
- focus on alliance, nation security problems, nuclear issues
- collective security
- sovereignty to be protected
- Post Cold War: state/nuclear security focus opposed and/or complemented by other conceptions of security:
- economic
- environmental
- gender
- food
- human education, health care
- regional
- approaches:
- diplomacy discussions between state officials
- unilateralism pre-emptive strike
- bilateralism 2 states free trade
- multilateralism 3 or more states
War: - focus of much of international relations research
- 1945 95: 164 wars, or over 3/year
- sources/causes of war: - only correlates
- tangible issues: territory, wealth, colonies, people
- intangible issues: ethnicity, religion, ideology, etc.
- some correlates:- economic and/or political grievances
- autonomy and independence
- historically informed causes incitement by leaders (demagoguery)
- share in resources
- dismantling or constricting of the state
- re-configurations of masculinity
- now-recognized prevalent phenomena:
- ethnic cleansing
- rape & sexual assault
- concern with weapons proliferation, knowledge/materials needed to produce

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- during Cold War: vertical proliferation increased numbers of weapons
- post Cold War: horizontal proliferation spread of weapons to states with no previous
knowledge/material
- issues: - accessing fissile material
- facility to weaponise
- radiological dispersal devices:
- disperse radioactive material to cause destruction, contamination, and injury
- three types: - explosive; passive exposing large population; atmospheric transport through air
currents
- chemical/biological weapon, usable at different levels of effectiveness and quantity:- severe repercussions
- more readily easier to transport and cloak
- less stringent international regulations
- not solely dependent on a few countries guarding the knowledge or resources for these weapons
- next wave: genetic weapons
- nanotechnology: microscopic molecular poisons, explosion & incendiary micro-materials, respiratory distress
- peacekeeping: goal: keep warring parties apart and reach diplomatic settlements
- since 1948: 56 operations, UN
- peacekeeping: keeping parties apart
- peace making: diplomacy, get parties talking
- peace enforcement: enforce agreement
State Forms of the Global North
Liberal Democracies:
- politics: - representative government
- secret & regular elections ballot, time frame, term limits
- political institutions: fair & predictable
- loyalty to the state
- institutionalized political participation voting, elections, political parties
- laws protecting individual rights
- opposition parties & movement supported, institutionalized
- society: - based in equality
- freedom of speech
- highly urbanized
- advanced infrastructure roads, hospitals, internet
- high quality of life
- provision of basic social services
- economy: free market, post-industrial
- regional & global influences: significant
- protection of minority rights
- qualities: - individual rights, legal system
- social welfare, taxation redistribution, support for social needs
- social contract between people & government
- capitalism property, profit, free entry/exit from market/labour
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