What is liberalism: all liberals aim to promote individual liberty, liberals value liberty, brian barry (1936-2009) on liberal states, religious toleration, freedom of the press, abolition of servile social status. Everyone born into equality: brian barry on liberal ideas, no religious dogma can reasonably be held with certainty, every doctrine should be open to critical scrutiny, fundamental equality of all human beings: inequality is an artifact. Human nature and freedom: rational, self interested, fair compensation & equal opportunity. Individuals should be free from legal barriers, customs, and conditions to live as they choose. Medieval europe: religious conformity, ascribed status, feudalism, challenging ascribed status, early liberals preferred achieved status. Protestant reformation: against church corruption, against priestly authority, tradition and ritual vs. reading and doing, promote beliefs of reformers. Resistance and freedom of conscience: luther and calvin: non-resistance, later calvinists: right to overthrow, leads to religious toleration.